Morphology of the chicken sleep and its changes during vaccination

Keywords: immunomorphology, lymphoid nodules of the spleen, periarterial lymphoid vaginas, periellipsoid lymphoid vaginas, vaccinal prevention


A significant number of scientific work has been dedicated to the study of immunogenesis processes in birds vaccinated to infectious diseases. In most contingency, research is aimed at assessing postvaccination immunity, as well as establishing structural changes in the immune system. But, exactly morphological studies that can provide an objective account of the immune effectiveness of the vaccine and assess the state of the body's immune system. However, today, morphological control of the immune status of chickens in the post-vaccination period has not been multitudinous used in practical poultry farming. Creating new vaccine prevention schemes, experts do not take into account the changes that manifested during this period. The purpose of the article – Is to systematize and describe the main results of research on the morphology of the spleen of chickens during vaccination. It should be noted that infectious diseases of birds, occupied a special place are: infectious bursal disease, infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, etc. Now, these diseases are registered in almost all countries of the world and bring significant economic losses to poultry farms. The main morphological changes in the spleen of chickens during vaccination include hyperplastic processes (lymphocyte proliferation and enlargement of macrophages), the appearance of blast cells, the development of plasma cell reactions. Morphofunctional changes in the spleen of chickens during vaccination are reflected in a significant amount of literature, but changes in the body that occur with multiplex vaccinations during complex vaccination schemes are not enough covered. This review article put a short description of the effect of vaccination used worldwide on the morphology of the spleen of chickens. The received data of a complex assessment of the morphofunctional state of the bird's spleen at different ages should be taken into account when compare complex scheme of vaccination.


Download data is not yet available.


Akter, S., Khan, M. Z. I., Jahan M. R., Karim M. R. & Islam M. R. (2006). Histomorphological study of the lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4(2), 87–92. doi: 10.3329/bjvm.v4i2.1289.

Al-Khatib, G. M., & Al-Qutbey, S. H. (2005). Isolation and Identification of Salmonella spp. which contaminated Poultry slaughter houses. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 29(1), 92–97. doi: 10.30539/iraqijvm.v29i1.868.

Al-Zubeady, A. Z., Shamaun, A. A., & Mahmmod, A. (2018). Histopathological And Immune Response Against Infectious Bursal Disease In Chickens Vac-cinated Against Newcastle Disease. Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 12(1), 66–70. doi: 10.29079/vol12iss1art232.

Asrutdinova, R., Zalyalov, I., Kirillov, E., Sunagatov, F., & Dubovoy, A. (2020). Comparative histological changes in the structure of the spleen and kidneys of experimental chickens exposed to the action of “Guidamis” as an adjuvant for vaccination against infectious bronchitis. BIO Web of Conferences, 17, 6. doi: 10.1051/bioconf/20201700184.

Ayman, U., Alam, Md. R., & Das, S. K. (2021). The spleen of Sonali chicken: morphohistology and biometric analysis at post hatching ages. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 7(1), 69–75. doi: 10.3329/ajmbr.v7i1.53311.

Budnik, T. S., & Guralska, S. V. (2021). Morphology of the spleen of chickens in the post-vaccination period. Proceedings of the Correspondence Snternational Sci-entific and Practical Conference “And integrated ap-proach to science modernization methods, modeis and multidisciplinarity”. Grail of science, 1, 198–200. doi: 10.36074/grail-of-science.19.02.2021.039.

Bushuyeva, I. V., Berezovsky, A. V., Knysh, E. G., & Panasenko, O. I. (2014). Zastosuvannya preparatu Avesstymtm dlya pidvyshchennya efektyvnosti vak-tsynoprofilaktyky ta vplyv preparatu na rezystentnistʹ kurchat [The use of the drug Avesstimtm to increase the effectiveness of vaccine prophylaxis and the effect of the drug on the resistance of chickens]. ScienceRise, 4/1(4), 94–97. doi: 10.15587/2313-8416.2014.29279 (in Ukrainian).

Cavanagh, D. (2003). Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus. Avian Pathology, 32(6), 567–82. doi: 10.1080/03079450310001621198.

Colombatti, A., Poletti, A., Carbone, A., Volpin, D., & Bressan, G. M. (1989). Extracellular matrix of lymphoid tissues in the chick. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 37, 757–763. doi: 10.1177/37.5.2703709.

Dey, S., Pathak D. C., Ramamurthy, N., Maity, H. K. & Chellappa, M. M. (2019). Infectious bursal disease vi-rus in chickens: prevalence, impact, and management strategies. Veterinary Medicine: Research and Re-ports, 10, 85–97. doi: 10.2147/VMRR.S185159.

Dunaievska, O. (2018). Anatomical and Morphometric Criteria of Spleen in Matured Gallus gallus, forma domestica L., Columbia livia G., Coturnix coturnix L. Innovative Biosystems and Bioengineering, 2(4), 221–231. doi: 10.20535/ibb.2018.2.4.151572.

Eto, S. F., Andrade, F. G., Pinheiro, J. W., Balarin, M. R., Ramos, S. P., & Venancio, E. J. (2012) Effect of inoculation route on the production of antibodies and histological characteristics of the spleen in laying hens. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 14(1), 63–66. doi: 10.1590/S1516-635X2012000100011.

Finogenova, Yu. A. (2009). Morfogenez selezenki broylerov [Broiler spleen morphogenesis]. Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost regiona, 372–375 (in Russian).

Fukuta, K., & Mochizuki, K. (1982). Formation of reticular fibers in the developing spleen of the chick embryo. Archivum histologicum Japonicum, 45, 181–189. doi: 10.1679/aohc.45.181.

Gimeno, I. M., & Schat, K. A. (2018). Virus-Induced Immunosuppression in Chickens. Avian Diseases, 62(3), 272–285. doi: 10.1637/11841-041318-Review.1.

Golubev, D. S., Zhakov, M. S., & Birman, B. Ya. (2003). Vliyaniye immunostimulyatora kaliya orotata na or-ganizm tsyplyat-broylerov, immunizirovannykh assotsiirovanno protiv n'yukaslskoy bolezni i infektsionnogobronkhita [The effect of the potassium immunostimulant orotate on the organism of broiler chickens immunized against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis]. Scientific notes of the educational establishment Vitebsk the Order of “the Badge of Honor” State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, 39(1), 44. URL: (in Russian).

Goralskiy, L. P., & Guralska, S. V. (2013). Imunomorfohenez u kurey, vaktsynovanykh proty infektsiynoho bronkhitu [Im-munomorphogenes of hen’s, which was immunized against an infectious bronchitis]. Visnyk ZhNAEU, 2(1), 90–93. URL: Immunomorfogenesis_in_chickens.pdf (in Ukrainian).

Goralskiy, L. P., Dunaievska, O. F., & Yaroshenko, T. Ya. (2018). Comparative anatomically-immunohistochemical characteristics of spleen in representatives of birds and mammals classes. Medical and Clinical Chemistry, 20(4), 72–78. doi: 10.11603/mcch.2410-681X.2018.v0.i4.9806.

Graczyk, S., Kuryszko, J., & Madej, J. (2003). Reactivity of Spleen Germinal Centres in Immunized and AC-THtreated Chickens. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 72, 523–531. doi: 10.2754/avb200372040523.

Gromov, I. N., & German, S. P. (2008). Morfologicheskiye i biokhimicheskiye izmeneniya v organakh im-munnoy sistemy ptits, vaktsinirovannykh protiv in-fektsionnogo bronkhita [Morphological and biochemical changes in the organs of the immune system of birds vaccinated against infectious bronchitis]. Visnyk ZhNAEU, 1/21(1), 230–237 (in Russian).

Gromov, I. N., & Prudnikov, V. S. (2009). Morfologiya organov immunnoy sistemy molodnyaka kur pri as-sotsiirovannoy vaktsinatsii protiv infektsionnoy bur-sal'noy bolezni, infektsionnogo bronkhita i bolezni N'yukasla [Morphology of the organs of the immune system of young chickens during associated vaccination against infectious bursal disease, infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease]. Scientific notes of the educational establishment Vitebsk the Order of “the Badge of Honor” State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, 45(1/2), 149–153 (in Russian).

Gromov, I. N., Galenko, S. S., Nasonov, I. V., Kostyuk, N. I. & Bubashko O. A. (2013). Izucheniye sravnitel'noy immunologicheskoy effektivnosti assotsirovannykh vaktsin protiv n'yukaslskoy bolezni, infektsionnogo bronkhi ta i sindroma snizheniya yaytsenoskosti v proizvodstvennykh usloviyakh [Study of the comparative immunological efficacy of associative vaccines against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and egg production syndrome under industrial conditions]. Scientific notes of the educational establishment Vitebsk the Order of “the Badge of Honor” State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, 49(1/1), 18–21 (in Russian).

Gromov, I. N., Prudnikov, V. S., & Birman, B. Ya. (2005). Morfologicheskaya otsenka effektivnosti vaktsinatsii kur protiv ILT [Morphological evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination of chickens against ILT]. Scientific notes of the educational establishment Vitebsk the Order of “the Badge of Honor” State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, 41(1), 95–97 (in Russian).

Gromov, I. N., Prudnikov, V. S., Gospodarik, O. V., & Zakharenko, M. V. (2006). Morfometricheskiye poka-zateli organov immuniteta ptits, vaktsinirovannykh protiv infektsionnoy bursal'noy bolezni [Morphomet-ric indicators of the organs of immunity of birds vac-cinated against infectious bursal disease]. Scientific notes of the educational establishment Vitebsk the Or-der of “the Badge of Honor” State Academy of Veter-inary Medicine, 42(1/1), 50–53 (in Russian).

Gumati, M. K., Magyar, A., Nagy, N., Kurucz, E., Felfoldi, B., & Olah, I. (2003). Extracellular matrix of different composition supports the various splenic compartments of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Cell and Tissue Research, 312, 333–343. doi: 10.1007/s00441-003-0736-y.

Guo, Z., Wang, H., Yang, T., Wang, X., Lu, D., Li, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2010). Priming with a DNA vaccine and boosting with an inactivated vaccine enhance the im-mune response against infectious bronchitis virus. Journal of Virological Methods, 167(1), 84–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.03.016.

Guralska, S. V. (2011). Morfolohiya selezinky kurey krosu khayseks, vaktsynovanykh proty infektsiynoho bronkhitu [Morphology of hen’s spleen of cross-breed of khayseks, which was immunized against an infec-tious bronchitis]. Scientific journal of National University of Live and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 167(2), 82–85 (in Ukrainian).

Guralska, S. V. (2015). Morfolohichni zminy orhaniv krovotvorennya ta imunohenezu kurey, vaktsyno-vanykh proty infektsiynoho bronkhitu [Morphological changes in blood forming and immune organs of chickens, vaccinated against infectious bronchitis]. Scientific journal of National University of Live and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 217(1), 47–52 (in Ukrainian).

Guralska, S. V. (2016). Immunohistochemical characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen of chickens after vaccination against infectious bronchitis. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Ser.: Veterinary Sciences, 18(3), 62–66. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet7014 (in Ukrainian).

Hofmann, T., Schmucker, S., Grashorn, M., & Stefanski, V. (2021). Short- and long-term consequences of stocking density during rearing on the immune system and welfare of laying hens. Poult Science, 100(8), 101243. doi: 10.1016/j.psj.2021.101243.

Igyarto, B.-Z., Magyar, A., & Olah, I. (2007). Origin of follicular dendritic cell in the chicken spleen. Cell Tissue Research, 327, 83–92. doi: 10.1007/s00441-006-0250-0.

Jeurissen, S. H. M. (1991). Structure and function of the chicken spleen. Research in Immunology, 142(4), 352–355. doi: 10.1016/0923-2494(91)90090-6.

Kannan, T. A., Ramesh, G., Ushakumari, S., Dhinakarraj, G., & Vairamuthu, S. (2015). Electron Microscopic Studies of Spleen in Chicken (Gallus domesticus). In-ternational Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology, 4(1), 160–165. doi: 10.23953/ cloud.ijavst.180.

Kasai, K., Nakayma, A., Ohbayashi, M., Nakagawa, A., Saga, A., Ito, M., Saga, S., & Asai, J. (1995). Im-munohistochemical characteristic of chicken spleen ellipsoids using newly established monoclonal antibodies. Cell and Tissue Research, 281, 135–141. doi: 10.1007/BF00307967.

Kotarev, V. I., Mikhailov, E. V., Khokhlova, N. A., Chaplygina, Yu. A., Samuilenko, A. Yu., Falkova, Yu. O. & Misharin, I. I. (2020). Histomorphometric indicators of chicken-broilers spleen of the cobb-500 cross within the species-specific interferon. BIO Web of Conferences, 17, 00100 doi: 10.1051/bioconf/20201700100.

Kozlu, T., Sart, E. K., Bozkurt, Y A., & Altunay, H. (2011). Comparative study on histological structure of the spleen sn the ostrich (Struthio Camelus), the kes-trel (Falco Tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion Haliaetus). Acta Biologica Hungarica, 62(2), 113–121. doi: 10.1556/ABiol.62.2011.2.1.

Li, R. F., Liu, S. P., Yi, J. E., Tian, Y. N., Wu, J., & Wen, L. X. (2020). Effects of induced stress from the live LaSota Newcastle disease vaccination on the growth performance and immune function in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 99(4), 1896–1905. doi: 10.1016/j.psj.2019.12.004.

Mast, J., & Goddeeris, B. M. (1999). Development of immunocompetence of broiler chickens. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 70(3/4), 245–256. doi: 10.1016/s0165-2427(99)00079-3.

Masum, Md. A., Khan, M. Z. I., Nasrin, M., Siddiqi, M. N. H., Khan, M. Z. I. & Islam, M. N. (2014). Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thy-mus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine, 2(2), 103–108. doi: 10.1016/j.ijvsm.2014.06.001.

Mebius, R. E., & Kraal, G. (2005). Structure and function of the spleen. Nature Reviews Immunology, 5(8), 606–616. doi: 10.1038/nri1669.

Mustafa, F. E. Z. A., & El-Desoky, S. M. M. (2020). Architecture and Cellular Composition of the Spleen in the Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica). Microscopy and Microanalysis, 26(3), 589–598. doi: 10.1017/S143192762000152X.

OECD/FAO (2016). OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016–2025. Paris: OECD Publishing, 107–116. doi: 10.1787/agr_outlook-2016-en.

OECD/FAO (2019), OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019-2028, OECD Publishing, Paris/Food and Agri-culture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 166–167. doi: 10.1787/agr_outlook-2019-en.

Onyeanusi, B. I. (2006). The guinea fowl spleen at em-bryonic and post-hatch periods. Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, 35(3), 140–143. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0264.2005.00641.x.

Rautenschlein, S., Kraemer, Ch., Vanmarcke, J., & Mon-tiel, E. (2005). Protective efficacy of intermediate and intermediate plus infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccines against very virulent IBDV in com-mercial broilers. Avian Diseases, 49(2), 231–237. doi: 10.1637/7310-112204R.

Reshag, A. F., & Hamza, R. A. (2017). Anatomical and histological changes in the spleen of post hatching in-digenous chicken in Iraq. The Iraqi Journal of Veteri-nary Medicine, 41(2), 174–178. URL:

Rula, O. M. (2012). Shlyakhy zabezpechennya epizo-otychnoho blahopoluchchya ptakho hospodarstv Ukrayiny shchodo infektsiynoyi bursalʹnoyi khvoroby (khvoroby Hamboro) [Ways to ensure the epizootic welfare of poultry farms in Ukraine for infectious bursal disease (Gamboro disease)]. Veterinary medicine, 96, 230–232 (in Ukrainian).

Sandford, E. E., Orr, M., Balfanz, E., Bowerman, N., Li, X., Zhou, H., Johnson, T. J., Kariyawasam, S., Liu, P., Nolan, L. K., & Lamont, S. J. (2011). Spleen tran-scriptome response to infection with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in broiler chickens. BMC Genomics, 12, 469–482. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-469.

Sapin, M. R., & Bulanova, G. V. (1988). Ellipsoids of the spleen (ellipsoid macrophagal-lymphoid sheaths. Arkhiv anatomii, gistologii i embriologii, 95(12), 5–13. URL:

Scanavini Neto, H., Ito, N. M. K., Miyaji, C. I., Lima, E. de A., Okabayashi, S., Correa A. R. A., Eleuterio, G. C., & Zuanaze, M. A. (2004). Infectious bursal disease virus: case report and experimental studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated SPF chickens and commercial broiler chicks. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 6(1), 41–54. doi: 10.1590/S1516-635X2004000100006.

Sharma, J. M. (1999). Introduction to poultry vaccines and immunity. Advances in Veterinary Medicine, 41, 481–94. doi: 10.1016/s0065-3519(99)80036-6.

Shutchenko, P. O., Stegniy, B. T., Music, D. V., Medvid, K. O., Stegniy, A. B., Rula, O. M. & Tkachenko, S. V. (2012). Doslidzhennya histolohichnykh zmin v orhanakh imunnoho zakhystu kurchat, ek-sperymentalʹno infikovanykh epizootychnym izolya-tom virusu infektsiynoho larynhotrakheyitu [Study of histological changes in the immune organs of chickens experimentally infected with an epizootic isolate of in-fectious laryngotracheitis virus]. Veterinary Medicine, 96, 260–261 (in Ukrainian).

Stromberg, Z. R., Goor, A., Redweik, G. A. J. & Mellata, M. (2018). Characterization of Spleen Transcriptome and Immunity Against Avian Colibacillosis After Im-munization With Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine Strains. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, 198. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00198.

Thomrongsuwannakij, T., Charoenvisal, N., & Chansiripornchai, N. (2021). Comparison of two attenuated infectious bursal disease vaccine strains focused on safety and antibody response in commercial broilers. Veterinary World, 14(1), 70–77. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.70-77.

Wilkinson, K. G., Tee, E., Tomkins, R. B., Hepworth, G. & Premier, R. (2011). Effect of heating and aging of poultry litter on the persistence of enteric bacteria. Poultry Science, 90, 10–18. doi: 10.3382/ps.2010-01023.

Wu, B., Cui, H., Peng, X., Fang, J., Cui, W., & Liu, X. (2012). Pathology of spleen in chickens fed on a diet deficient in methionine. Scientific Research, 4(1), 8. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.41007.

Yabe, M., Medeiros, L., Wang, S., Tang, G., Bueso-Ramos, C., Jorgensen, J., Bhagat, G., Chen, W., Li, S., Young, K., & Miranda, R. (2017). Distinguishing Be-tween Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma and γδ T-cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Clinico-pathologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Analysis. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 41(1), 82–93. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000743.

Yang, X. J., Li, W. L., Feng, Y., & Yao, J. H. (2011). Effects of immune stress on growth performance, im-munity, and cecal microflora in chickens. Poultry Sci-ence, 90, 2740–2746. doi: 10.3382/ps.2011-01591.

Yang, X., Guo, Y. M., Wang, Z., & Nie, W. (2006). Effects of dietary supplementation with different oils on coccidiosis in chickens. Avian Pathology, 35(5), 373–378. doi: 10.1080/03079450600921149.

Yasmin, A. R., Yeap, S. K., Hair-Bejo, M., & Omar, A. R. (2016). Characterization of Chicken Splenic-Derived Dendritic Cells Following Vaccine and Very Virulent Strains of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Infection. Avian Diseases, 60(4), 739–751. doi: 10.1637/11275-091315-Reg.1.

Yassine, F., Fedecka-Bruner, B., & Dieterlen-Lievre, F. (1989). Ontogeny of the chick embryo spleen - a cyto-logical study. Cell Differentiation and Development, 27, 29–45. doi: 10.1016/0922-3371(89)90042-7.

Zhang, Q., Chen, B., Yang, P.L., Zhang, Y., Liu, S., Wu, Y., Waqas, Y., Le, W., & Chen, Q. (2015). Identification and structural composition of the blood-spleen barrier in chicken. The Veterinary Journal, 204, 110–116. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.01.013.

Zhang, Q., Sun, X., Wang, T., Chen, B., Huang, Y., Chen, H., & Chen, Q. (2019). The Postembryonic Development of the Immunological Barrier in the Chicken Spleens. Journal of Immunology Research, 4, 1–10. doi: 10.1155/2019/6279360.

Zhang, Q., Waqas, Y., Yang, P., Sun, X., Liu, Y., Ahmed, N., Chen, B., Li, Q., Hu, L., Huang, Y., Chen, H., Hu, B., & Chen, Q. (2017). Cytological study on the regulation of lymphocyte homing in the chicken spleen during LPS stimulation. Oncotarget, 8, 7405–7419. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.14502

Abstract views: 74
PDF Downloads: 53
How to Cite
Guralska, S., & Budnik, T. (2021). Morphology of the chicken sleep and its changes during vaccination. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 23(103), 3-9.