Features of the microscopic structure of the adrenal gland of geese
The study of the morphology of the adrenal gland of birds is one of the most critical issues of modern biology and veterinary medicine cause its solution contributes to the scientific justification of technologies for rearing, using, and treating birds. The work aims to clarify the features of the microscopic structure of the adrenal gland of geese. As a peripheral organ of the endocrine system, the adrenal gland affects the growth and differentiation of tissues, regulates water, protein, carbohydrate, fat, and mineral metabolism, the body's resistance to infections, intoxication, stress, and other factors. During research were used histological indagation methods. It was found that blood vessels, clusters of nerve cells are registered in the capsule of the adrenal gland of geese. Nodes of the sympathetic nervous system are registered outside it. Connective tissue septa with hemocapillaries extend from the capsule to the adrenal parenchyma, which is represented by intertwined cell strands of interrenal and suprarenal tissues. The narrow spaces between these cell strands are filled with layers of loose fibrous connective tissue with sinusoidal hemocapillaries and venous sinuses. The subcapsular layer, peripheral and central zones are recorded on the incision of the adrenal gland. The adrenal vein is localized in the central zone. The subcapsular zone is mainly represented by cells of suprarenal tissue, the peripheral and central zone – by cells of interrenal tissue. Suprarenal tissue cells have a polygonal shape, basophilic cytoplasm, and a rounded, centrally located nucleus. Cells of interrenal tissue are columnar or cubic, have eosinophilic colored cytoplasm, a round or oval nucleus placed eccentrically. Venous sinuses are localized in the central and peripheral zones of the adrenal gland. Their wall is thin, formed by flat endotheliocytes, bounded by groups of cells of interrenal and suprarenal tissues. As a result, established microscopic structural features of the adrenal gland of geese can be used to formulate the base of its typical morphological characteristics, which give a possibility to assess the Morpho-functional essential state of the bird adrenal gland of this species by the influence of various factors and pathologies, in perspective of following researches – the exploration of morphometric parameters of the structural components of the adrenal gland of geese.
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