Autonomous regulation of antioxidant protection and protein exchange in chickens
The tone of the autonomic nervous system, protein metabolism and the activity of the antioxidant system in Cobb-500 cross chickens aged 35 and 60 days were researched. The experiment involved 24 chickens, 8 in each group. In birds, the tone of the autonomic nervous system was determined by the method of variation pulsometry by recording the influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on the heart rate in chickens. The effect was determined by counting one hundred consecutive cardio intervals and the time interval between each cardiocycle. Venous blood samples were taken from each individual at the age of 35 and 60 days to determine protein metabolism (total protein, albumin, globulins), enzymatic and non-enzymatic links of the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation depending on the tone of the autonomic nervous system. It was found that the antioxidant level in chickens with a predominance of the sympathetic division prevailed in all other groups regardless of the age of the bird. At 35 days of age, plasma concentrations of diene conjugates were significantly higher in normatonics and vagotonics (P ˂ 0.05). There was a higher level of activity of ketodienes and Schiff bases in chickens with a predominance of the sympathetic division of autonomic nervous regulation compared with normotonics and vagotonics (P ˂ 0.01). The content of total protein, albumin and globulins prevailed in normotonic hens and was the lowest in vagotonic hens at the age of 35 days. The two-month-old bird with a dominant parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system and normotonic hens had the highest levels of total protein, globulins, and conversely, sympathicotonic hens outnumbered the latter in albumin levels. Histidine content was highest in chickens with a balanced type of autonomic nervous system compared to sympathicotonics and vagotonics (P ˂ 0.05). The concentration of sulfur-containing amino acid methionine was highest in vagotonic chickens (P < 0.05) compared with sympathicotonics. Threonine was highest in sympathicotonics compared with other groups of animals and significantly outweighed vagotonics (P < 0.05). The level of lipid peroxidation products in 60-day-old sympathicotonic chickens was consistently higher in contrast to normotonics and vagotonics. At the same time there was the smallest increase in the activity of diene conjugates and ketodienes (P < 0.05) in chickens with a dominant sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, which indicates a slowdown in the accumulation of the final products of lipid peroxidation. It was found that the predominance of sympathetic tone is characterized by low activity of enzymes of the antioxidant system and tocopherol (P < 0.001, P < 0.01) at 35 and 60 days of age. Indicators of the activity of the antioxidant system had the highest level in vagotonic chickens of the studied age period (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The relationship between catalase and tocopherol levels in vagotonic chickens at 35 days of age, which increases at 60 days of age r = 0.53 (P < 0.01) was found.
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