Morphological and morphometrical characteristics of cattle heart structure

Keywords: cattle, heart, myocard, ventricles, auricle, cardiomyocytes, microscopic structure, morphometry.


The paper presents the results of macro- and microscopic structure of cattle heart on the organ-, tissue- and cell levels. The samples of the selected material (n = 5) were preserved in a 10–12 % water solution of neutral formaline with its further charging into wax. Histologic sections not more than 10 mkm were made from wax blocks by using a sliding microtome MC-2. Hematoxilin- and eosin staining of histological sections by Heydengine technique was used for studying cell morphology, carrying out morphometrical studies and for receiving review samples. Histoarchitecture of the structural parts of the heart (ventricle and auricle) and their morphometrical parameters were studied on the histological preparations using the light microscopy technique. The experimantal part of the scientific research was carried out in compliance with the requirements of “European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimantal and other Scientific Purposes” (Strussburg, 1986). The cattle heart is located in a thorax between two lungs, in front of a diaphragm and shifted left. In the 3rd4th rib region the heart adjacents to a thoracic wall. The heart apex is in the 5th rib region. The absolute weight of a cattle heart equals 2143.27 ± 38.76 g, the relative weight equals – 0.43 ± 0.006 %. The net weight of the heart without the epicardial fat equals 1926.12 ± 31.12 g. Herewith, the weight of the aortic ventricle equals 978.54 ± 19.52 g, the weight of the pulmonic ventricle equals 554.17 ± 14.21 g, the weight of both ventricles equals 1539.08 ± 49.74 g. The auricles weight was the least and equaled 397.18 ± 11.21 g. The ratio of the ventricle weight of the heart to its net weight equals 1:0.2, and the ratio of the weight of the auricle myocard to the weight of the ventricle myocard equals 1:0.26. The heart height equaled 23.08 ± 0.11 сm, width – 13.9 ± 0.18 cm and the circumference – 38.08 ± 0.9 cm. According to the analysis of such liniar measurements, the cattle heart in the animals of the experimental group is characterized as that of an enlarged- and short form. The heart wall consists of three sacsendocardium, myocard and epicardium. The dominating weight of the heart wall is in a muscular layer (myocard), which consists of transversus stripe muscular fibers which are formed on the basis of mononuclear cells – cardiomyocytes which are interlinked into muscular fibers. According to the cytometric analysis of cardiomyocytes, their largest volume – (11225.73 ± 824.42 mkm3) is observed in the aortic ventricle, smaller – (7963.60 ± 627.09 mkm3) – in a pulmonic ventricle and the smallest – (5361.60 ± 583.91 mkm3) in the auricle cardiomyocytes. Herewith, the volumes of cardiomyocytes nuclei in an aortic ventricle (124.55 ± 7.99 mkm3 and in a pulmonuc ventricle (121.67 ± 7.02 mkm3) are nearly the same, and in the auricle cardiomyocytes the nuclei volume is significantly smaller and it equals 101.05 ± 6.04 mkm3 respectively. Such morphometrical parameters of cardiomyocytes and their nuclei are evidenced in their nuclei-cytoplasmatic ratio, which is the smallest in the cardiomyocytes of an aortic ventricle – 0.0113 ± 0.0068, somewhat larger in a pulmonic ventricle – 0.0156 ± 0.0054 and the largest – 0.0234± 0.0058 in the auricle cardiomyocytes, that is connected with the special properties of the muscular tissue of a myocard which is capable of spontaneous rythmic beatings depending on their morphofunctional load: the ventricles pump the blood from the heart to the body performing the gratest load (the aortic ventricle acts a s a pump, and the pulmonic ventricle acts as a container), the auricles receive the blood which returns to the heart from the animal body, performing somewhat smaller load.


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Goralskyi, L., Ragulya, M., Sokulskyi, I., Kolesnik, N., & Goralska, I. (2021). Morphological and morphometrical characteristics of cattle heart structure. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 23(103), 145-151.