Influence of technological factors on milk quality indicators
The article presents a study of the organization of milk production technology on the farm with tethered and tethered-boxing of cows. It has been established that one of the departments uses Dairy Plan C21 herd management software. This makes it possible to obtain comprehensive data on milk productivity, health, and behavior of each cow, group of animals, and the herd. Pre- and post-milking treatment of cows' teats with means based on a probiotic culture of Bacillus subtilis, Forticept® Udder Wash, and Zooprotect. According to the research results, data on production and sales were obtained, and indicators of quality and safety of whole raw milk from two departments were analyzed. Gross milk production for the year at section 1 with free-range boxing of cows was 1875.4 tons, the average annual yield per cow – 7381 kg, milk marketability – 96.3 %. The production figures for section № 2 with tethered animals were – 1324.2 tons, 7333 kg, and 96.5 %, respectively. The study found that the average annual amount of MAFANM in milk from cows at tethered housing was 37 ± 3.6 × 104 thousand CFU/cm3; loose-box – 35 ± 4.1 × 104 thousand CFU/m3; the number of somatic cells is 327.8 ± 28.73 and 332.1 ± 29.91 thousand cm3, respectively. In the milk of cows from section № 2 the protein content was 3.19 ± 0.067 %, fat – 3.78 ± 0.106 %, fat/protein ratio – 1.18 : 1. Slightly higher values were obtained when studying cows' milk from the sections № 1 – 3.22 ± 0.033; 3.88 ± 0.093 %, and 1.21 : 1, respectively. According to normative indicators, the fat/protein ratio is 1.2–1.4 : 1. It should be noted that deviations from these indicators indicate a violation of metabolic processes in cows. Indicators of acidity and density in cow's milk were within the normative values. According to research, no heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides, or inhibitors have been detected in whole raw milk. Therefore, analyzing the data obtained, it should be noted that the milk produced on the farm and sold to processing enterprises meets the requirements for quality milk. According to the national standard, it is suitable for producing quality and safe products.
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