The Study of the 17β-estradiol content in raw milk during the lactation period
There is a large number of different contaminants that can affect the safety of milk consumption. In particular, the biological nature of pollution is provided by microorganisms, while the chemical pollution is controlled by heavy metal salts, inhibitory substances, hormones, etc. Recent studies report the delivery of milk and other livestock products for processing with a high content of steroidal estrogenic hormones of synthetic and natural origin. The aim of this study was to determine the content of 17β-estradiol in raw milk during lactation and estrous cycle. The amount of 17β-estradiol in raw milk was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay through the RIDASCREEN®17β-őstradiol test system (Art-Biopharm / R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany). During cow gestation observed on two farms, it was found that the 17ß-estradiol concentration in raw milk gradually increased, as indicated by probable changes compared to the first month of pregnancy. In particular, during the first three months of pregnancy, the amount of 17ß-estradiol did not exceed 100 pg/ml of milk with an average ranging between 42.4 ± 7.7 to 68.3 ± 7.8 pg/ml. From the fourth month onwards, the amount of steroid hormone increased on an average of 139.4 ± 11.8 pg/ml, which is 3.2, 2.7 and 2.0 times (P < 0.05) more, compared to the first, second and third months of pregnancy, respectively. The dynamics of growth of 17ß-estradiol in the following months of pregnancy was even more significant. Importantly, on the fifth month the amount of hormones was estimated at 497.3 ± 36.7 pg/ml, which is 3.5 times (P < 0.05) more than in the fourth month and almost 10 times more than in the first month of pregnancy. Before the end of the seventh and eighth month of pregnancy, the maximum concentration of 17ß-estradiol in milk was detected – 1105.3 ± 78.5 and 1209.8 ± 82.4 pg/ml, respectively. The results indicate that the lowest amount of content of 17ß-estradiol hormone in raw milk was during the first seven days of the study with a concentration of 57.1 to 65.6 pg/ml. during the estrous cycle in cows. Starting from the 15th to the 19th day of the estrous cycle, the amount of 17ß-estradiol ranged from 365.5 to 391.3 pg/ml. However, the highest amount of 17ß-estradiol was recorded in milk on the 19th day with a content of 407.3 ± 39.5 pg/ml. Thus, milk obtained at the end of lactation and estrous cycle is significantly enriched with estrogenic hormones that end up in dairy milk products and organisms of final consumers.
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