Pathomorphological diagnostics of panleukopenia in cats (case description)

  • O. Rudenko Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine
  • O. Shchebentovska Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine
Keywords: dehydration, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, crypts of Lieberkühn, splenomegaly, lymphocytic necrosis


The article highlights the results of autopsy and histopathological studies of cats diagnosed with panleukopenia (FPV), confirmed by immunochromatographic rapid test. The spread of FPV among cats is declining sharply worldwide due to domestic vaccination of cats. However, the number of deaths among homeless animals is still high. The disease course usually varies from subclinical infection to acute syndrome with sudden death. Typical clinical manifestations are characterized by fever, lethargy, and anorexia. Sick cats suffer from vomiting and subsequent watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea. Homeless animals often die from complications associated with secondary bacterial infection, sepsis, and dehydration. Cats aged four months to one year are the most severely affected. Mortality varies depending on the disease course, the animal’s general condition, and timely veterinary care. The autopsy of the dead animals showed signs of catarrhal gastritis, catarrhal and hemorrhagic enterocolitis, splenomegaly, serous lymphadenitis, liver and kidneys’ acute congestive hyperemia, and pulmonary edema. Duodenum histological examination revealed villi necrosis, edema of the mucous membrane’s stroma, and desquamation of enterocytes into the intestinal lumen. Necrosis of Lieberkühn crypts and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions in enterocytes were very pronounced. Microscopic changes in the stomach and large intestine were characterized by dystrophic and necrobiotic changes of mainly the epithelial plate of the mucous membrane. Extracapillary glomerulonephritis developed in the kidneys, while focal emphysema and edema occured in the lungs. Stroma edema, delimphatization and lymphocytic necrosis were observed in the spleen and lymph nodes.


Download data is not yet available.


Abd-Eldaim, M., Beall, M. J.,  Kennedy, M. A. (2009). Detection of feline panleukopenia virus using a com-mercial ELISA for canine parvovirus. Vet Ther., 10(4), 1–6. URL:

Addie, D. D., Toth, S., Thompson, H., Greenwood, N.,  Jarrett, J. O. (1988). Detection of feline parvovirus in dying pedigree kittens. Vet Rec., 142(14), 353–356. DOI: 10.1136/vr.142.14.353.

Awad, R. A., Khalil, W. K. B.,  Attallah, A. G. (2018) Epidemiology and diagnosis of feline panleukopenia virus in Egypt: Clinical and molecular diagnosis in cats. Veterinary World, 11(5), 578–584. DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.578-584.

Battilani, M., Balboni, A., Ustulin, M., Giunti, M., Scaglia-rini, A., & Prosperi, S. (2011). Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats. Veterinary research, 42(1), 43. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-43.

Breuer, W., Stahr, K., Majzoub, M.,  Hermanns, W. (1998). Bone-marrow changes in infectious diseases and lymphohaemopoietic neoplasias in dogs and cats-a retrospective study. J Comp Pathol., 119(1), 57–66. DOI: 10.1016/s0021-9975(98)80071-6.

Cave, T. A., Thompson, H., Reid, S. W., Hodgson, D. R.,  Addie, D. D. (2002). Kitten mortality in the United Kingdom: a retrospective analysis of 274 histopatho-logical examinations (1986 to 2000). Vet Rec., 151(17), 497–501. DOI: 10.1136/vr.151.17.497.

Cotmore, S. F., Agbandje-McKenna, M., Chiorini, J. A., Mukha, D. V., Pintel, D. J., Qiu, J., Soderlund-Venermo, M., Tattersall, P., Tijssen, P., Gatherer, D., & Davison, A. J. (2014). The family Parvoviridae. Ar-chives of virology, 159(5), 1239–1247. DOI: 10.1007/s00705-013-1914-1.

Decaro, N., Desario, C., Miccolupo, A., Campolo, M., Parisi, A., Martella, V., Amorisco, F., Lucente, M. S., Lavazza, A.,  Buonavoglia, C. (2008). Genetic anal-ysis of feline panleukopenia viruses from cats with gastroenteritis. J Gen Virol., 89(9), 2290–2298. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.2008/001503-0.

Gaskell, R. M., Dawson, S.,  Radford, A. D. (2006). Duration of immunity. The regulatory issues. Vet Mi-crobiol., 117(1), 80–85. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.04.014.

Greene, C. E. (2012). Feline enteric viral infections. Infec-tious diseases of the dog and cat, 80–91.

Inthong, N., Sutacha, K., Kaewmongkol, S., Sinsiri, R., Sribuarod, K., Sirinarumitr, K., & Sirinarumitr, T. (2019). Feline panleukopenia virus as the cause of di-arrhea in a banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) in Thailand. The Journal of veterinary medical science, 81(12), 1763–1768. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.19-0238.

Kruse, B. D., Unterer, S., Horlacher, K., Sauter-Louis, C.,  Hartmann, K. (2010). Prognostic factors in cats with feline panleukopenia. Journal Vet Intern Med., 24(6), 1271–1276. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0604.

Leal, É., Liang, R., Liu, Q., Villanova, F., Shi, L., Liang, L., Li, J., Witkin, S. S., & Cui, S. (2020). Regional adapta-tions and parallel mutations in Feline panleukopenia virus strains from China revealed by nearly-full length genome analysis. PloS one, 15(1), e0227705. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227705.

Lutz, H., Castelli, I., Ehrensperger, F., Pospischil, A., Ros-skopf, M., Siegl, G., Grob, M.,  Martinod, S. (1995). Panleukopenia-like syndrome of FeLV caused by co-infection with FeLV and feline panleukopenia virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 46(1-2), 21–33. DOI: 10.1016/0165-2427(94)07003-p.

Merkulov, G. A. (1969). Kurc patologicheckoj tehniki [Course of pathohistological techniques]. Medicine, Moscow (in Russsian).

Mulisch, M.,  Welsch, U. (2015). Romeis – Mikroskopische Technik. Berlin: Springer Spektrum. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-55190-1.

Pearse, A. G. E. (1960). Histochemistry, Theoretical and Applied (ed. 2). Boston: Little, Brown & Company.

Poole, G. M. (1972). Stability of a modified, live panleu-copenia virus stored in liquid phase. Appl Microbiol., 24(4), 663–664. DOI: 10.1128/am.24.4.663-664.

Rice, J. K. (2017) Successful Treatment of Feline Panleu-kopenia: A Guideline For Rescuers and Veterinarians, Part I. J Vet Sci Med Diagn., 6, 2. DOI: 10.4172/2325-9590.1000223.

Steinel, A., Parrish, C. R., Bloom, M. E.,  Truyen, U. (2001). Parvovirus infections in wild carnivores. J Wildl Dis., 37(3), 594–607. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-37.3.594.

Stuetzer, B.,  Hartmann, K. (2014). Feline parvovirus infection and associated diseases. Vet J., 201(2), 150–155. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.05.027.

Tucker, S., Penninck, D. G., Keating, J. H.,  Webster, C. R. (2014). Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis. J Feline Med Surg., 16(12), 950–956. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X14525385.

Wang, K., Du, S., Wang, Y., Wang, S., Luo, X., Zhang, Y., Liu, C., Wang, H., Pei, Z.,  Hu, G. (2019). Isolation and identification of tiger parvovirus in captive siberi-an tigers and phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene. In-fect Genet Evol.,75, 103957. DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.103957.

Yang, S., Wang, S., Feng, H., Zeng, L., Xia, Z., Zhang, R., Zou, X., Wang, C., Liu, Q., & Xia, X. (2010). Isolation and characterization of feline panleukopenia virus from a diarrheic monkey. Veterinary microbiology, 143(2-4), 155–159. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.023.

Abstract views: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
How to Cite
Rudenko, O., & Shchebentovska, O. (2022). Pathomorphological diagnostics of panleukopenia in cats (case description). Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 24(105), 59-66.