Overview: eutanasia and methods of antanasia of animals


  • S. Nichiporuk National University of life and environmental sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • M. Radzikhovskyi National University of life and environmental sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0518-8148
  • B. Gutyj Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5971-8776
Keywords: euthanasia, barbiturates, pentobarbital, T-61, humane euthanasia

Abstract

The attention of modern society to euthanasia has increased because many centuries ago, a social phenomenon was established, associated not only with the achievements of medical science but also with changing values of the individual and society, actualizing the problem, considering them family members. The number of euthanasia animals has fallen sharply in recent decades. This was facilitated by the adoption of animal protection programs, as well as increasing the social value of animals – the consideration of animals not only as property but also the recognition of some of their rights to welfare. The article discusses the ethical aspects of veterinary practice related to euthanasia, as the relationship between animal and human is constantly changing, ultimately changing the veterinary profession's landscape. When carrying out any manipulations, the relationship between the animal and the owner should be considered. In addition, the rapid development of medicine leads to new opportunities for animal care and the creation of ethical and moral dilemmas regarding the possible improvement of patients' lives. Particular attention is paid to the impact of euthanasia on the morale of the veterinarian, as well as the level of preparation for this manipulation and further communication with the owners. The article presents the preconditions and indications for this procedure and the research results on the leading causes of euthanasia. Particular attention is paid to the euthanasia of laboratory and warm-blooded animals for use in biological experiments. Methods and methods of euthanasia of animals following the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals and the Law of Ukraine On Protection of Animals from Cruelty, which are divided into recommended, acceptable, conditionally acceptable, unacceptable. The information on the list of possible drugs for euthanasia is given. The classification of euthanasia methods and the use of humane methods of ending animal life is given in the example of Canadian shelters.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Artwohl, J., Brown, P., Corning, B., & Stein, S. (2006). Report of the ACLAM Task Force on Rodent Eutha-nasia. Journal of the American Association for La-boratory Animal Science, 45(1), 98–105. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16548095.

AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2020 Edition. URL: https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/ 2020-02/Guidelines-on-Euthanasia-2020.pdf.

Batchelor, C. E. M., & McKeegan, D. E. F. (2012). Survey of the frequency and perceived stressfulness of ethical dilemmas encountered in UK veterinary practice. Vet-erinary Record, 170(1), 19. DOI: 10.1136/vr.100262.

Berna, C. V., & Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, J. M. (2022). Leyes de eutanasia en España y en el mundo: aspectos mé-dicosEuthanasia laws in Spain and in the world: Med-ical aspects. Atención Primaria, 54(1), 102170. DOI: 10.1016/j.aprim.2021.102170.

Bijsmans, E. S., Jepson, R. E., Syme, H. M., Elliott, J., & Niessen, S. J. M. (2016). Psychometric validation of a general health quality of life tool for cats used to compare healthy cats and cats with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30(1), 183–91. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.13656.

Caffrey, N., Mounchili, A., McConkey, S., & Cockram, M. S. (2011). Survey of euthanasia practices in ani-mal shelters in Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52(1), 55–61. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21461208.

Citowicz, R. (2006). Prawnokarne aspekty ochrony życia człowieka a prawo do godnej śmierci. Warszawa: “Kodeks”.

Cooney, K. A., Chappell, J. R., Callan, R. J. & Connally, B. A. (2012). Veterinary еuthanasia techniques (a practical guide). Small animal surgery, USA.

Crane, M. (2014). New research examining the effect of euthanasia on the mental health of veterinarians. Australian Veterinary Journal, 92(6), N2. DOI: 10.1111/avj.127.

Dickens, G. E., Roof, P. D. & Roof, K. W. (2011). A Sur-vey of Veterinarians in the US: Euthanasia and Other End-of-Life Issues. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals, 24(2), 167–174. DOI: 10.2752/175303711X12998632257666.

Emanuel, E. J. (1994). Euthanasia. Historical, ethical, and empiric perspectives. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154(17), 1890–1901. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.154.17.1890.

European Convention for the Protection of Pets, 13 Feb-ruary 1987 [Yevropeysʹka konventsiya pro zakhyst domashnikh tvaryn vid 13 lyutoho 1987 r.] (in Ukrainian).

Evtanaziya tvaryn [Euthanasia of animals] veb-sayt. URL: https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Евтаназія_тварин (in Ukrainian).

Euthanasia of Research Animals. URL: https://services-web.research.uci.edu/compliance/animalcare-use/research-policies-and-guidance/euthanasia.html.

Evtanaziya. URL: https://ips.ligazakon.net/document/ TM040113 (in Ukrainian).

Goralskii, L., Radzіkhovsky, N., Dyshkant, О., Dunaievska, O., & Sokulskiy, I. (2019). Experimental study of tropism in cultivated canine coronavirus in the small intestine of puppies. Regulatory Mecha-nisms in Biosystems, 10(4). 489–496. DOI: 10.15421/021972.

Hall, E. J., Carter, A. J., & O’Neill, D. G. (2020). Incidence and risk factors for heat-related illness (heatstroke) in UK dogs under primary veterinary care in 2016. Scien-tific Reports. 10, 9128. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-66015-8.

Hart, L. A. Hart, B. L., & Mader, B. (1990). Humane euthanasia and companion animal death: caring for the animal, the client, and the veterinarian. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 197(10), 1292–1299. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2266042.

Hellebrekers, L. J., Baumans, V., Bertens, A. P., & Hart-man, W. (1990). On the use of T61 for euthanasia of domestic and laboratory animals; an ethical evalua-tion. The international journal of laboratory animal science, 24(3), 200–204. DOI: 10.1258/002367790780866254.

Herzog, H. A., Vore, T. L., & New, J. C. (1989). Conversa-tions with veterinary students: attitudes, ethics, and animals. Anthrozoös, 2(3), 181–189. DOI: 10.2752/089279389787058019.

Humanna evtanaziya sobak ta kishok. veb-sayt. URL: https://animals.kharkov.ua/files/animals/euthanasia_of_dog_cats_WSPA_ua.pdf (in Ukrainian).

Kipperman, B., Morris, P., & Rollin, B. (2018). Ethical dilemmas encountered by small animal veterinarians: characterisation, responses, consequences and beliefs regarding euthanasia. Veterinary Record, 182(19), 548. DOI: 10.1136/vr.104619.

Klaunberg, B. A., O'malley, J., Clark, T., & Davis, J. A. (2004). Euthanasia of mouse fetuses and neonates. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 43(5), 29–34. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 15461437.

Knesl, O., Hart, B. L., Fine, A. H., Cooper, L., Patterson-Kane, E., Houlihan, K. E., & Anthony, R. (2017). Vet-erinarians and Humane Endings: When Is It the Right Time to Euthanize a Companion Animal? Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 4, 45. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2017.00045.

Kotsyumbas, I. Ya., Malyk, O. H., Zhyla, M. I., & Kosen-ko, Yu. M. (2012). Do pytannya provedennya klin-ichnykh doslidzhenʹ veterynarnykh likarsʹkykh zasobiv. Biolohiya tvaryn, 14(1–2), 34–41 (in Ukrain-ian).

Zakon Ukrayiny “Pro zakhyst tvaryn vid zhorstokoho povodzhennya” vid 21.02.2006 r. Vidomosti Verkhovnoyi Rady. 2006. 27. 230 (in Ukrainian).

Zakon Ukrayiny pro zakhyst tvaryn vid zhorstokoho povodzhennya. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/3447-15#Text (in Ukrainian).

Mikkelsen, J., & Lund, J. D. (1999). Euthanasia of dogs because of behaviour problems: An epidemiological study of euthanasia of dogs in Denmark with special attention to aggression problems. Dansk Veterinaer-tidsskrift, 82(11). 474–479. URL: https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/ search.do?recordID=DK1999001013.

Mondelli, M., Giannini, F., & Giacchi, M. (2002). Carpal tunnel syndrome incidence in a general population. Neurology, 58(2), 289–294. DOI: 10.1212/wnl.58.2.289.

Morgan, C. A., & McDonald, M. (2007). Ethical dilem-mas in veterinary. medicine. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice, 37(1), 165–179. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.09.008.

Mozes, R., Pearl, D. L., Niel, L. & Weese, J. S. (2018). Epidemiological investigation of euthanasia in an On-tario animal shelter. Journal of Feline Medicine & Sur-gery, 20(6), 479–486. DOI: 10.1177/1098612x17715152.

O’Neill, D. G., Church, D. B., McGreevy, P. D., Thomson, P. C., & Brodbelt, D. C. (2013). Longevity and mortal-ity of owned dogs in England. Veterinary Journal, 198(3), 638–643. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.020.

O’Neill, D. G., Church, D. B., McGreevy, P. D., Thomson, P. C., & Brodbelt, D. C. (2015). Longevity and mortal-ity of cats attending primary care veterinary practices in England. Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery, 17(2), 125–133. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X14536176.

Ogden, U., Kinnison, T., & May, S. A. (2012). Attitudes to animal euthanasia do not correlate with acceptance of human euthanasia or suicide. Veterinary Record, 171(7), 174. DOI: 10.1136/vr.100451.

Packer, R. M. A., O’Neill, D. G., Fletcher, F., & Farnworth, M. J. (2019). Great expectations, inconvenient truths, and the paradoxes of the dog-owner relationship for owners of brachycephalic dogs. PLoS ONE, 14(7), e0219918. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219918.

Pegram, C., Gray, C., Packer, R. M. A., Richards, Y., Church, D. B., Brodbelt D. C., & O’Neill, D. G. (2021). Proportion and risk factors for death by euthanasia in dogs in the UK. Scientific Reports, 11, 9145. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-88342-0.

Persson, K., Selter, F., Neitzke, G., & Kunzmann, P. (2020). Philosophy of a “Good Death” in Small Ani-mals and Consequences for Euthanasia in Animal Law and Veterinary Practice. Animals, 10(1), 124. DOI: 10.3390/ani10010124.

Pritchett, K., Corrow, D., Stockwell, J., & Smith, A. (2005). Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 55(3), 275–281. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16089177.

Quality of Life Scale. URL: https://360petmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Quality-of-Life-Scale.pdf.

Radzіkhovsky, N. (2018). Makroskopichni zminy u tsu-tsenyat za eksperymentalʹnoho vidtvorennya koronavirusnoho enterytu. Visnyk PDAA. Ser. Vet-erynarna medytsyna, 4, 174–177. DOI: 10.31210/visnyk2018. 04.27 (in Ukrainian).

Radzіkhovsky, N., Dyshkant, О., & Sokulskiy, I. (2020). Pathomorphology of active organs of immunogenesis for experimental reproduction of coronavirus infec-tion in dogs. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 22(99), 75–79. DOI: 10.32718/nvlvet9912.

Raghav, R., Taylor, M., Guincho, M.. & Smith, D. (2011). Potassium chloride as a euthanasia agent in psittacine birds: Clinical aspects and consequences for histo-pathologic assessment. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52(3), 303–306. URL: https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039905.

Rogelberg, S. G., DiGiacomo, N., Reeve, C. L., Spitzmuller, C., Clark, O. L., Teeter, L., Walker, A. G., Carter, N. T., & Starling, P. G. (2007). What shelters can do about euthanasia-related stress: an examina-tion of recommendations from those on the front line. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 10(4), 331–347. DOI: 10.1080/10888700701353865.

Springer, S., & Grimm, H. (2018). Euthanasie als Thema der veterinärmedizinischen Ethik. Veterinary Medicine Austria, 105, 129–138. URL: https://www.wtm.at/smart_users/uni/user94/explorer/43/1812_fin.pdf.

Springer, S., Hartnack, S., Weich, K., Moens, Y., & Grimm, H. (2013). Euthanasie in der Kleintierpraxis–Ergebnisse der TierärztInnenbefragung. Tierschutz, 21.

Tran, L., Crane, M. F., & Phillips, J. K. (2014). The Distinct Role of Performing Euthanasia on Depression and Su-icide in Veterinarians. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(2), 123–132. DOI: 10.1037/a0035837.

Turner, P. V., Hickman, D. L., Luijk, J., Ritskes-Hoitinga, M., Sargeant, J. M., Kurosawa, T. M., & Shimada, K. (2020). Welfare Impact of Carbon Dioxide Euthana-sia on Laboratory Mice and Rats: A Systematic Re-view. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 411. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00411.

Villalobos, A., & Kaplan, L. (2007). Canine and Feline Geriatric Oncology: Honoring the Human-Animal Bond. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 48(11), 1154. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC2034422.

Vlasenko, V. M., Rublenko, S. V., & Yaremchuk, A. V. (2013). Problemy evtanaziyi tvaryn. Naukovyy visnyk veterynarnoyi medytsyny, 11, 33–37 (in Ukrainian).

Yevropeysʹka konventsiya pro zakhyst khrebetnykh tvaryn, shcho vykorystovuyutʹsya dlya doslidnykh ta inshykh naukovykh tsiley vid 18 bereznya 1986 roku. Zbirka dohovoriv Rady Yevropy. Kyyiv: Parlament·sʹke vydavnytstvo, 2000. veb-sayt. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/994_137 (in Ukrainian).

Yevstafyeva, V. O., Kruchynenko, O. V., Klymenko, O. S., & Melʹnychuk, V. V. (2017). Yurydychni aspekty shchodo adaptatsiyi ukrayinsʹkoho zakonodavstva do vymoh Yevropeysʹkoho Soyuzu z pytanʹ zhorstokoho povodzhennya z tvarynamy. Visnyk PDDA, 1–2, 104–107 (in Ukrainian).

Abstract views: 0
PDF Downloads: 0
Published
2022-05-04
How to Cite
Nichiporuk, S., Radzikhovskyi, M., & Gutyj, B. (2022). Overview: eutanasia and methods of antanasia of animals. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 24(105), 141-148. https://doi.org/10.32718/nvlvet10520

Most read articles by the same author(s)