The content of saturated fatty acids in the blood plasma of cows in the winter period depends on autonomic nervous regulation
The tone of the autonomic nervous system is one of the key systems of the nervous system in regulating homeostasis. In turn, this can affect the metabolism of organic substances in the animal's body, which is reflected in physiological indicators. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the tone of the autonomic nervous system on the content of saturated fatty acids. Groups of animals were formed according to Baesky’s method, according to which they were divided into three groups: normotonic, sympathotonic, and vagotonic. Blood was collected in winter. Chromatographic research revealed the following: caproic acid in normotonic (1.19 ± 0.01) is 0.15 % less compared to sympathotonic (P ≤ 0.01) and 0.15 % more compared to vagotonic (P ≤ 0.001). Caprylic acid is 0.28 % more in normotonic (1.19 ± 0.05) compared to sympathotonic (P ≤ 0.001) and, comparing the indicators with the third group, 0.37 % more than vagotonic (P ≤ 0.001). Lauric acid in normotonic (0.54 ± 0.03) is higher than vagotonic by 0.13 % (P ≤ 0.01). Myristic acid has a lower percentage ratio in normotonic (2.62 ± 0.08) compared to sympathotonic by 0.30 % (P ≤ 0.001). Palmitic acid is 2.95 % less in normotonic (17.59 ± 0.46) compared to vagotonic (P ≤ 0.001). Arachidic acid has a lower percentage ratio in normotonic (0.21 ± 0.01) compared to sympathotonic by 0.08 % less (P ≤ 0.001). Cows belonging to the normotonic group have the most saturated fatty acids: capric (1.19 ± 0.05), lauric (0.54 ± 0.03); and the least myristic (2.62 ± 0.08) and arachidic (0.21 ± 0.01). Animals belonging to the group of sympathotonic have the most saturated fatty acids: caproic (1.18 ± 0.04), myristic (2.92 ± 0.03) and arachidic (0.29 ± 0.01). Cows belonging to the group of vagotonic have the least saturated fatty acids: caproic (0.88 ± 0.01), capric (0.82 ± 0.03) and lauric (0.41 ± 0.01); the most palmitic acid (20.54 ± 0.16). Considering all factors, we can conclude that the tone of the autonomic nervous system in the body of cows plays an indirect role in the metabolism of saturated fatty acids in blood plasma. This can be facilitated by the influence of the departments of this nervous system, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which, depending on the peculiarities of the animal's physiological state, affect the body as a whole.
Cheng, Z., Wylie, A., Ferris, C., Ingvartsen, K. L., Wathes, D. C., & GplusE Consortium. (2021). Effect of diet and nonesterified fatty acid levels on global tran-scriptomic profiles in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells in early lactation dairy cows. Jour-nal of Dairy Science, 104(9), 10059–10075. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2021-20136.
Duan, H., Cai, X., Luan, Y., Yang, S., Yang, J., Dong, H., ... & Shao, L. (2021). Regulation of the autonomic nervous system on intestine. Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 700129. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2021.700129.
Erdmann, S., Mohr, E., Derno, M., Tuchscherer, A., Schäff, C., Börner, S., ... & Röntgen, M. (2018). Indi-ces of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory ca-pacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows. Animal, 12(7), 1451–1461. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731117002725.
Folch, J., Leez, M., & Stanley, G. A. (1957). Simple Meth-od for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. J. Biol. Chem, 226(2), 497–501. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13428781.
Grille, L., Adrien, M. L., Méndez, M. N., Chilibroste, P., Olazabal, L., & Damián, J. P. (2022). Milk Fatty Acid Profile of Holstein Cows When Changed from a Mixed System to a Confinement System or Mixed System with Overnight Grazing. International journal of food science, 2022, 5610079. DOI: 10.1155/2022/5610079.
Imai, J., & Katagiri, H. (2022). Regulation of systemic metabolism by the autonomic nervous system con-sisting of afferent and efferent innervation. Interna-tional immunology, 34(2), 67–79. DOI: 10.1093/intimm/dxab023.
Kitajima, K., Oishi, K., Kojima, T., Uenishi, S., Yasunaka, Y., Sakai, K., ... & Hirooka, H. (2022). An Assessment of Stress Status in Fattening Steers by Monitoring Heart Rate Variability: A Case of Dietary Vitamin A Restriction. Frontiers in Animal Science, 2, 799289. DOI: 10.3389/fanim.2021.799289.
Kra, G., Nemes-Navon, N., Daddam, J. R., Livshits, L., Jacoby, S., Levin, Y., ... & Moallem, U. (2021). Prote-omic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and inflammatory status in postpartum dairy cows supplemented with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Journal of proteomics, 246, 104313. DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104313.
Lymperopoulos, A., Suster, M. S., & Borges, J. I. (2022). Short-Chain Fatty Acid Receptors and Cardiovascular Function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(6), 3303. DOI: 10.3390/ijms23063303.
Messina, G., Valenzano, A., Moscatelli, F., Salerno, M., Lonigro, A., Esposito, T., ... & Cibelli, G. (2017). Role of autonomic nervous system and orexinergic system on adipose tissue. Frontiers in physiology, 8, 137. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00137.
Młynek, K., Danielewicz, A., & Strączek, I. (2021). The effect of energy metabolism up to the peak of lacta-tion on the main fractions of fatty acids in the milk of selected dairy cow breeds. Animals, 11(1), 112. DOI: 10.3390/ani11010112.
Mylostyvyi, R., Sejian, V., Izhboldina, O., Kalinichenko, O., Karlova, L., Lesnovskay, O., ... & Midyk, S. (2021). Changes in the Spectrum of Free Fatty Acids in Blood Serum of Dairy Cows during a Prolonged Summer Heat Wave. Animals, 11, 3391. DOI: 10.3390/ani11123391.
Piccioli-Cappelli, F., Seal, C. J., Parker, D. S., Loor, J. J., Minuti, A., Lopreiato, V., & Trevisi, E. (2022). Effect of stage of lactation and dietary starch content on endocrine-metabolic status, blood amino acid concen-trations, milk yield, and composition in Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 105(2), 1131–1149. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2021-20539.
Sinyak, K. M., & Orgel, M. Ya. (1976). Method of prepa-ration of blood lipids for gas chromatographic re-search. Lab. case, 1, 37–41.
Stanković, I., Adamec, I., Kostić, V., & Habek, M. (2021). Autonomic nervous system—Anatomy, physiology, biochemistry. In International Review of Movement Disorders, 1, 1–17. DOI: 10.1016/bs.irmvd.2021.07.006.
Straznicky, N. E., Nestel, P. J., & Esler, M. D. (2009). Au-tonomic Nervous System: Metabolic Function. Ency-clopedia of Neuroscience, 2009, 951–959. DOI: 10.1016/B978-008045046-9.00638-0.
Tessari, R., Berlanda, M., Morgante, M., Badon, T., Gianesella, M., Mazzotta, E., ... & Fiore, E. (2020). Changes of plasma fatty acids in four lipid classes to understand energy metabolism at different levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in dairy cows. Ani-mals, 10(8), 1410. DOI: 10.3390/ani10081410.
Tilahun, M., Zhao, L., Sun, L., Shen, Y., Ma, L., Calla-way, T. R., ... & Bu, D. (2022). Fresh Phyllanthus em-blica (Amla) Fruit Supplementation Enhances Milk Fatty Acid Profiles and the Antioxidant Capacities of Milk and Blood in Dairy Cows. Antioxidants, 11(3), 485. DOI: 10.3390/antiox11030485.
Valensi, P. (2021). Autonomic nervous system activity changes in patients with hypertension and overweight: role and therapeutic implications. Cardiovascular Di-abetology, 20(1), 1–12. DOI: 10.1186/s12933-021-01356-w.
Vanacker, N., Blouin, R., Ster, C., & Lacasse, P. (2022). Effect of different fatty acids on the proliferation and cytokine production of dairy cow peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Journal of Dairy Science, 105(4), 3508–3517. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2021-21296.
Abstract views: 7 PDF Downloads: 4