Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies 2018-12-12T14:51:32+02:00 Bogdan Gutyj (Богдан Гутий) Open Journal Systems Scientific Messenger specializes in veterinary medicine and genetics Dietetic ingredients of small animals suffering from obesity and their biological role 2018-12-10T11:28:32+02:00 L.-E. Al-Badu O. Smirnov L. Kalachniuk <p><em>Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. The daily ration of an adult cat must contain 40–45% of proteins, 20–25% of fats, 25–30% of carbohydrates. Low- fat diets are recommended to cats with overweight. Necessary amino acids are in the diet of cats with excess weight. Taurine is a sulfonic acid, which synthesizes in the body of animals and humans from the amino acid of cysteine. It plays an essential role in the digestion and assimilation of fats and lipids. The need for cats in taurine is due to their limited ability to synthesize taurine from amino acids that contain sulfur, as well as the fact that it holds bile acids. The latter is very important because cats do not produce bile acid salts associated with glycine, even in the case of taurine deficiency. Taurine has many fundamental biological roles, such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, and modulation of calcium signaling. It is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system. The deficiency of taurine leads to degeneration of the retina and blindness, deafness, cardiomyopathy, disorders in the functioning of the immune and reproductive systems, suppression of neonatal growth, and the occurrence of birth defects. The recommended amount for a cat per day is 100–200 mg. L-Tryptophan is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Together with vitamin B6, magnesium and niacin, tryptophan is responsible for the serotonin production in the brain (a mediator that regulates the activity of nerve cells and transmits signals between them). Also, tryptophan is involved in the production of hemoglobin and affects the reproductive function of animals. The recommended amount for a cat per day is 0.3 g/1000 kcal of energy value (EV). DL-methionine is a synthetic analog of natural methionine. Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals. As the substrate for other amino acids such as cysteine and taurine, and the important antioxidant glutathione, methionine plays a critical role in the metabolism and health of many species, including humans. Methionine is a source of sulfur that forms the keratin protein. Keratin is simply necessary for the health of the hair, skin, and claws of the animal. The recommended amount for a cat per day (methionine + cystine) is 1.5 g/1000 kcal EV. Nowadays the problem of overweight in small domestic animals, in particular in cats and dogs, is becoming more widespread. In order to prevent the spread of obesity, therapeutic rations should be balanced by all indicators, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Тhe content of calcium and phosphorus in the blood of cows with a different tonus of the autonomic nervous system 2018-12-10T11:41:01+02:00 O. V. Zhurenko V. I. Karpovskiy O. V. Danchuk Yu. V. Kravchenko-Dovga <p><em>Research was conducted on cows of the Ukrainian black-and-white breed of the 2–3 lactation. Tonus of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of cows was determined using trigeminovagal reflex (TVR). According to the obtained results, an animal was designate as normotonics, sympatheticotoniсs or vagotonics. According to the results of the study of the ANS tonus, 3 experimental groups were formed 4 animals in each. The first group included animals-normotonics, the second – vagotonics, and the third one – sympatheticontics. It was established a tendency of </em><em>сalcium/</em><em>hosphorus lower content in the blood of cows during the warm season and higher in the winter (in the range of 3</em>–<em>8%). It should also be noted that there was tendency towards lower calcium content in the blood of vagotonic cows and higher – in sympatheticotoniс animals, regardless of the season. Unlike calcium, the content of phosphorus in the blood of cows significantly depended on the ANS tonus. In particular, the content of this element in the blood of sympatheticotoniс and vagotonic cows in winter was lower by 14.0% (P &lt;</em> <em>0.001) and 18.3% (P &lt; 0.001), respectively. However, in the summer, this difference became significantly smaller and had character of a trend (at the level of 5.0</em>–<em>7.2%). It has been established that the calcium-phosphorus ratio in cow’s blood did not depend significantly on the ANS tonus or on the season of the year, but a clear trend was established for its lower value in summer, regardless of the ANS tonus</em><em>.</em><em> The strength of excitability levels of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system according to the results of the TVR in cows did not significantly limit the phosphorus content in their blood in summer, and calcium in winter (η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.00</em>–<em>0.019). But in normotonic animals, the ANS tonus significantly affected the calcium-phosphorus ratio </em><em>– </em><em>η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.59 (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.05) and the phosphorus content in their blood </em><em>– </em><em>η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.29 (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.05) in winter. It was established that ANS tonus in sympatheticotonic animals limited the phosphorus content in winter </em><em>– </em><em>η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.35 (P &lt; 0.05) and the calcium-phosphorus ratio as in summer </em><em>– </em><em>η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.29 (P &lt; 0.05) so in winter </em><em>– </em><em>η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.45 (P &lt; 0.05). Whereas in vagotonic cows, the ANS tonus limited the calcium content in the summer </em><em>– </em><em>η<sup>2</sup><sub>x</sub> = 0.26 (P &lt;</em> <em>0.05). Correlation analysis of the ANS tonus index, phosphorus and calcium content in cow’s blood did not establish significant interrelationships depending on the season of the year. However, it should be noted a clear trend of direct correlation of the index of the ANS tonus with the calcium content (r = 0.24</em>–<em>0.35) and the calcium-phosphorus ratio (r = 0.43</em>–<em>44) in the cows’ blood and the reverse one with the phosphorus content in the cows’ blood (r = -0.22</em>–<em>0.30). The data obtained could indicate on the presence of autonomic regulatory mechanisms for the regulation of the content of specific macronutrients in the blood of cows.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Circulating microflora and its resistance to antibacterial medications in the conditions of Farm “Pchani-Denkovich” of Zhydachiv district of Lviv region 2018-12-10T12:20:47+02:00 Ya. V. Kisera L. Ya. Bozhyk Yu. G. Storchak <p><em>The importance of the influence of microorganisms on the health of humans and animals is beyond doubt. In recent decades, a large amount of data on the interaction of the flora with the elements of the immune system has been accumulated. Therefore, it is important to identify any hazardous factors that must be prevented or neutralized. One of such factors is the circulating flora of the premises, the organism of the animal, its virulence and resistance to antibacterial drugs. Bacteriological studies included bacteriological culture on the nutrient environment, their identification and the study of antibiotic</em><em>sensitivity</em><em>. According to the results of bacteriological studies of milk samples, it was found that in 25% of the studied samples Staphylococcus aureus cultures were found in different concentrations. In 4 samples, Proteus vulgaris was detected. Bacteriological studies of vaginal exudate from the cows after calving have shown that they have Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli haemolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, mold fungi of the Aspergillus spp. The studies of the exudate from the nasal passages and the </em><em>mouth</em><em>of the calves found that all the tested samples contained Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella pnemoniae and Aspergillus and Candida fungi. The results of calf excrement studies revealed the presence of a number of microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli haemolitica, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter</em> <em>cloacae and Enterobacter</em> <em>faecalis in different percentages. In determining the sensitivity of isolated cultures to antibacterial drugs, it has been established that Staphylococcus aureus cultures are sensitive to all antibiotics; Proteus vulgaris show resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin; Escherichia coli haemolytica is resistant to ampicillin.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distribution trend rabies in cats in Ukraine 2018-12-10T12:36:24+02:00 I. F. Makovska V. V. Nedosekov I. M. Polupan T. S. Latmanizova <p><em>In recent decades, there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of rabies in cat population due to lack of proper vaccination among domestic and stray animals. In such conditions, the virus is approaching the humans due to the increase in the number of cases of attacks of these animals on humans. Therefore</em><em>,</em><em> our aim was to carry out a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of rabies virus in Ukraine, to study the trends of rabies virus spread among domestic carnivores in recent decades, to establish the reasons for an increase in the proportion of cats in epizootic and epidemic processes in Ukraine. Having conducted a retrospective analysis from 1950 to 2017, we found that in 1950</em>–<em>1954 rabies in cats in the epizootic situation constituted a small percentage – </em><em>1.58</em><em>%. In 197</em><em>5</em>–<em>19</em><em>79</em><em> there was an increase in the number of cases of the disease up to</em><em> 17%</em><em>, which occurred as a result of the epizootic outbreaks of rabies among the foxes that were most in contact with cats, especially stray, having common spatial and trophic bonds. Subsequently, trend of the development of rabies acquired a slight fluctuation, but the general trends of species distribution did not change significantly. However, in recent decades, the epizootic situation regarding this zoonosis among cats has become under constantly tension. An analysis of changes in the species structure from the total number of</em> <em>cats, who died of rabies in </em><em>1950</em><em> compared to 2017 showed an increase in the proportion from 1.58% to 30.5%. It </em><em>is the highest percentage of cat rabies in Europe.</em><em> After conducting an epidemiological analysis, we found that over the past decades, cats became the source of hydrophobia for every third patient. Our further research will be aimed at creating a database on the incidence of rabies in all species of animals in order to improve the program of rabies control among domestic carnivores and</em><em> conduct a GIS-analysis on the territory of Ukraine.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Express methods for determining the processing of meat by disinfectants during storage and sale 2018-12-10T12:49:53+02:00 N. M. Bogatko I. V. Yatsenko T. I. Fotina <p><em>The need to improve the control of meat slaughter animals and poultry in their rigging to develop modern express methods that have credibility in the indicators within and 99</em><em>,</em><em>4 to 99</em><em>.</em><em>9%, and can be used along with other methods to determine their quality and safety in the manufacturing laboratory facilities for meat processing, slaughtering companies and companies with sales and storage of meat (supermarkets, wholesale warehouses, refrigerators and the like), in the state laboratories of veterinary medicine and in laboratories of veterinary-sanitary examination of agro-industrial markets. Despite the fact that the responsibility for the safety and quality of food of animal origin is entrusted to the manufacturer, the protection of consumer health is always under control of the state. To ensure consumers receive safe and high quality meat need to develop new rapid methods for their adequate control. Especially relevant are the research directions for the development of rapid methods to objectively assess the safety and quality of meat of slaughtered animals and poultry during storage, and the implementation or use for the production of meat products. In stores, supermarkets, wholesale bases, the agricultural markets during the implementation of the meat of slaughtered animals and poultry it is often possible to detect the adulteration of meat for the handling of formalin, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, potassium permanganate for long-term storage and eliminate the signs of damage. Therefore, we have performed experimental studies and developed rapid methods to identify this type of fraud. Developed rapid methods for the determination of adulteration of meat of slaughter animals and poultry with formalin, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, potassium permanganate are simple to implement and their results specific quality indicators. Therefore, these rapid methods are available us along with other methods for determining the quality and safety of meat slaughtered animals and poultry (determination of organoleptic, the content of amino-ammoniac nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, pH, etc). These methods can be used in determining the safety and quality of meat of slaughtered animals and poultry during storage, and the implementation of laboratories at the facilities of meat processing, supermarkets, wholesale bases, in government veterinary laboratories and laboratories of veterinary-sanitary examination of agro-industrial markets.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of stability of intrauterine aerosol preparation “Yodozol” 2018-12-10T13:19:53+02:00 R. M. Sachuk O. A. Katsaraba <p><em>For standardization, quality control, study of stability and establishment of storage conditions and terms of use, complex preclinical trials of the new development of PE </em><em>“</em><em>Biopharm</em><em>”</em><em> and the Experimental Station of Epizootology IVM NAAN – aerosol preparation “Yodozol” have been carried out. The methods of evaluation of a medicinal product applied to aerosols are used, which include: determination of changes in appearance, inspection of packaging for leakproofness, measurement of the percentage of contents of the package, the establishment of qualitative and quantitative indicators of active substances, and also the study of microbiological purity of the product. “Yodozol</em><em>”</em><em> is a light yellow liquid, 1 ml of which contains 5 mg of iodine and 10 mg of potassium iodide. The drug is used for the prevention and treatment of postnatal intrauterine infections in cows, pigs, sheep and goats (endometritis, pyrometers, cervicitis, vaginitis, delayed digestion caused by microorganisms sensitive to iodine), after obstetric</em><em>s</em><em> aid</em><em>, cesarean section and postpartum sanitation of the uterus. The drug has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, improves the proliferative processes of the genital organs, reduces the time for recovery of animals. The drug is used according to the guidelines, after its production livestock is used without restrictions. The shelf-life, which is the result of the test of the dasg according to the </em><em>«</em><em>stability</em><em>»</em><em> indicator, has been determined, which was performed under long-term storage in a place protected from light at a temperature range from + 5 ± 2 °С to + 25 ± 2 °С. The studies conducted after 6, 12, 24 and 30 months showed complete compliance of the quality indices with the declared standards when stored for 24 months in the temperature corridor from +&nbsp;5&nbsp;°C to + 20 °C. With an increase in storage temperature to + 25 °C or more, a slight quantitative decrease in the concentration of antimicrobial components occurred. In addition, with long-term storage of drugs, release of the contents from the cylinder became uneven and foam acquired a shade less than the saturation rate, increased microbiological contamination. Thus, according to the results of the study, the established shelf life of the preparation is 2 years at the recommended storage temperature from +5 to &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;+20 °С. All studies conducted on the stability of the aerosol intrauterine drug </em><em>“</em><em>Yodozol</em><em>”</em><em> were included in the registration materials of the medicinal product.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of cadmium loading on glutathione system of antioxidant protection of the bullocks’bodies 2018-12-10T13:30:12+02:00 B. V. Gutyj D. F. Gufriy V. Y. Binkevych R. O. Vasiv N. V. Demus K. Y. Leskiv O. M. Binkevych O. V. Pavliv <p><em>It was presented the results of studies of the cadmium effect loading on the activity of the glutathione system of antioxidant protection in young cattle, namely on the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the level of reduced glutathion. It was established that feeding of cadmium chloride to bullocks at a dose of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg body weight contributed to a decrease in both the enzyme and non-enzyme link of the glutathione antioxidant defense system. The toxic effect of cadmium contributes to a change in stationary concentrations of radical metabolites. О<sub>2</sub>˙ˉ, ˙ОН, НО<sub>2</sub>˙, which, in turn, initiate lipid peroxidation processes. The lowest level of glutathione indexes of the antioxidant defense system in the blood of young cattle was established on the sixteenth and twenty fourth day of the experiment, it was associated with enhanced activation of lipoperoxidation and an imbalance between the activity of the antioxidant system and the intensity of lipid peroxidation. The feeding of cadmium chloride to bullocks at a dose of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg of animal weight did not affect the activity of the glutathione antioxidant defense system in their blood. It was established that the greater the amount of cadmium chloride in the feed, the lower the activity of the glutathione system of the antioxidant defense of the body of bulls. Thus, cadmium chloride suppresses the antioxidant protection system, in particular, by reducing the activity of the enzyme link: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and non-enzyme link: reduced glutathione.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative assessment of the antigenity of autogenic vaccine against salmonelosis in the RA and RG 2018-12-10T13:42:28+02:00 O. P. Boiko B. M. Kurtiak T. O. Pundiak P. K. Boiko O. M. Sen’ M. S. Romanovyh G. V. Sobko <p><em>The results of the comprehensive approach to the diagnosis, general and special measures for the elimination of the infection center for the outbreak of Salmonella in calves in one of the large dairy farms in the Volyn region are presented. The use of classical diagnostic methods using modern environments and approaches made it possible to isolate and identify two types of Salmonella Typhimurium and S. dublin. Antibiotic therapy of calves for salmonellosis calves was carried out with labeled antibiotics in combination with medicinal products of symptomatic nature. Forced current and final disinfection of cages and whole calf, as well as wicker yards and cows were carried out with a 0.1% solution of the new disinfection preparation “Epydes”, created on the basis of derivatives of polyhexamethylenguanidine (PGMG), at a rate of 0.3 l/m<sup>2</sup>. For a specific prevention of salmonellosis, we designed our two series of autogenic vaccines from isolated strains of salmonella, the difference between which was the choice of adsorbent. The study of the tension of humoral immunity in cats and calves vaccinated against salmonellosis in agglutination and indirect hemagglutination reactions revealed high levels of antibodies to immunogens that were part of two experimental autopsy series of autogenic vaccines. In this case, the immune response to the antigens of the Tifimurium was higher than that of Dublin antigens. Titres of antibodies from cats and calves vaccinated with a vaccine in which the aerosol was used as an adsorbent were higher than those for a vaccine in which an aluminum hydroxide was used as an adsorbent. The reaction of indirect agglutination showed several times the higher sensitivity to detect salmonella antibodies than the agglutination reaction, which is the basis for recommending it as an immunological method of tension of humoral immunity for animal salmonellosis. The comprehensive approach to diagnosis of disease, modern approaches to the treatment of calves with salmonella, the destruction of the pathogen in the environment and the modern approach to the immunization of the infection, made it possible to improve the economy throughout the year from salmonella caused by two types of salmonella.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dynamics of blood immunological indicators in the period of the reproductive cycle under different technologies of keeping 2018-12-10T13:53:02+02:00 N. U. Krempa <p><em>The obtained results of search on the influence of technology and conditions of sows holding of different physiological states on immunological parameters indicate that that the content of T-lymphocytes in the blank and sows of the first half of fertility in both farms was very high and exceeded the upper limit of physiological norm by 1</em>–<em>3% on average. However, with the onset of the second half of fertility and lactation in sows, a decrease in its level, fluctuating within the limits of the physiological norm (49.12%</em>–<em>51.37%), was noted. The content of T-helper cells in sows of all physiological groups of both farms was within the limits of the physiological norm. The difference between the indicators was the highest in sows of the second half of fertility </em>–<em> 8%, in favor of sows from the farm of the Staryi Sambir district. In other groups of sows the T-helper's content varied from 0.12% to 1.7%, with the overwhelming majority in favor of sows from the Zolochiv district. In fact, the same percentages were the indexes of the contents of T-suppressors of&nbsp; blank and sows of the first half of the fertility of both farms. In the sows of the second half of fertility, the difference between the indicators of this population of lymphocytes was 3.37%, the predominantly higher rate was observed in sows from the farm of the Zolochiv district. In lactating sows, the difference in rates was significantly lower, only 0.88%, with a tendency for growth in animals from the Staryi Sambir district. An analysis of the level of humoral protection of the sow's blood of reproduction period showed, that in all physiological groups, except lactating, the content of B-lymphocytes was on average 0.38% </em>–<em> 0.95% higher was in sows from the farm of Zolochiv district. In lactating animals, the level of these lymphocytes was 3.75% higher in females from the economy of the Staryi Sambir district. The immunoregulatory index in almost all animal groups exceeded the upper limit of the physiological norm by 0.11%</em>–<em>0.48%. The exception was only sows of the second half of fertility from the farm of Zolochiv district and lactating sows from the economy of the Staryi Sambir district, where the index of IRI was at the level of the upper limit of the physiological norm, but did not exceed it. The phagocytic activity of neutrophils ranged from 38.68% to 63.05% and did not exceed the physiological norm. The index of phagocytic number in all groups of sows corresponded to physiological norms. Exceptions were sows from the economy of the Staryi Sambir district, the indicator corresponded to the value of 3.44, which is 0.56 less than the lower limit of physiological norm.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Staphylococcus aureus infection in cows is a cause of acute digestive disorders in newborn calves 2018-12-10T14:16:11+02:00 B. M. Kurtyak M. S. Romanovich R. V. Voloshin T. O. Pundyak M. M. Romanovich L. V. Romanovich G. V. Sobko <p><em>The morbidity of newborn calves caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is associated with an increase in staphylococcal processes that are localized in the lizard of the cows and the carrier of the pathogen. Such cows, often with colostrum, transmit the pathogen and its toxins to newborn calves. According to the results of bacteriological studies, in the subclinical form of the mastitis with secretion of the dementia of the cows, Staph. aureus, staph. intermedius, staph. epidermidis, E. coli, Ps. auruginosa, etc., in pure culture, but in most cases, in association with other microorganisms. Staphylococcuses isolated in 25 strains were tested for enterotoxicity. From the strains examined, they produced: three strains of enterotoxin B and five strains enterotoxins B and C. The disease of the cows by staphylococcal infection of the udder influenced the fetal development of the fetus. From cows suffering from mastitis, calves were born weak and 1</em><em>–</em><em>2.5 kg live weight lower than from healthy cows. Calves (16 heads) who received colostrum from mothers with staphylococcal infection of the udder in association with other microorganisms, in fourteen cases were ill with signs of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Among calves born from cows suffering from mastitis, but who received colostrum from healthy cows, two of them fell from ten heads. In calves of both groups, the activity of cellular elements was determined by opsonophagocytic response. </em><em>In the experimental group, where the calves received colostrum, were infected with staphylococci, the intensity of phagocytosis in all study periods was lower (from 0.4 to 1.9) compared with the control group calves.</em> <em>Quality of colostrum of cows also affected the activity of phagocytosis prplodu. In the experimental group, the activity of phagocytosis was throughout the experiment at one level – 33, and in calves that received colostrum from healthy cows, activity increased (after one day – 37, and for the second and third day – 40).</em> <em>Studies have shown that colostrum infected with enterotoxigenic staphylococci, especially in association, is dangerous for newborn calves. It causes them diarrhea and often leads to death. We have confirmed the etiological connection between cows disease with mastitis of staphylococcal etiology and enterocolitis of newborn calves.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The history of the treatment of animals in Lviv 2018-12-10T14:45:44+02:00 V. Prysyazhnyuk <p><em>During the XV – first half of the XVII century, Lviv was the artisan, educational and cultural center of Ukraine due to the fact that it stood at the intersection of major European roads and was a well-known market center for sales, exchange and commodity production in Central and Southern Europe. The first schools for the training of medical specialists were family, that is, family schools. Later, the schools became known as workshops. In the 14th century&nbsp;the workshops were independent higher educational institutions and were not part of the universities, even in Europe, as it was regulated by the statutes of universities. Ukrainian workshops later started out academies and universities and had the attributes of higher educational institutions: statute, flag, seal, ciches, icons, which testified the place and importance of the school (shop) in the life of the country. The prince (king) gave the certificate of the opening of the school. The statute of the work shop was extended to members of the association: a student, an apprentice and a master. Workshops&nbsp; statutes were legal documents and often were not changed much for centuries. Medieval archival documents of the XIV – first half of the XVII century (workshops statutes, books on current affairs, books of the city authorities) quite fully reflect the Lviv workshop structure not only quantitatively but also professionally. The two oldest statutes of the blacksmith shop in 1529 and 1558 are stored in the Lviv State Historical Archives. In the future, the blacksmiths-conquerors were engaged in the treatment of not only horses but other animals. Particularly in the fight against poisonous animal diseases, they enriched the experience of medical practice, which was passed on to subsequent generations. However, all of these were educational institutions, in which a small number of qualified medical specialists trained, and the majority of the population and animals were served by&nbsp; healers, bloodshed, blacksmiths, and veterinary doctors. Diagnosis of diseases at that time was based mainly on using only their senses: it was investigated the movement of animals, body temperature, eye color, condition of the tongue, nasal mirror, mouth and nasal cavity, removing sweat, urine, breath, nostrils and so on. In countries that were under the care of Austria, Hungary, Poland and other countries of Western Europe, has acted veterinary service structure of relevant states. Already in the XII – XIII centuries laws have been enacted and the measures were developed, aimed at preventing the emergence and spread of diseases (quarantine disposal of dead animals, compliance with sanitary regulations, etc.). Great attention was paid to protecting people from infectious diseases. Opening of veterinary school and horses forging was the result of the rise of trade and economic, cultural and educational ties in the medieval city, which was contributed to the birth and development of the work shop structure that gave the beginning of a medical case, and later – the birth of veterinary education&nbsp;in Galicia</em><em>.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of the parameters of acute and acute toxicity of the “VetMicoDerm” liniment under the skin application 2018-12-11T09:07:28+02:00 V. Martynyshyn <p><em>The toxicity parameters of </em><em>“</em><em>VetMikoDerm</em><em>”</em><em> for one-time and long-term skin treatment were investigated. The </em><em>studied</em><em> liniment as an off-white substance has a thio derivative of 1,2,4-triasol</em><em>e. </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>S</em><em>potted thistle oil</em><em> is used as</em> <em>a</em><em> solvent. The research </em><em>of</em><em> the determination of</em> <em>acute and </em><em>low </em><em>acute skin toxicity has been performed on young, healthy, healthy skin </em><em>of the</em><em> laboratory rats. The drug was applied in different doses to the stripped areas of the skin (area </em><em>is </em><em>not less than 10% of the total area of the skin).</em> <em>It was established that after a single application of the drug (24 hours) in a dose</em><em> of</em><em> less than 2000 mg/kg </em><em>of </em><em>body weight</em><em>, </em><em>the death of experimental animals or </em><em>any </em><em>signs of general intoxication of the body is not observed.&nbsp; Local reaction (redness, itching, allergy, combing) is absent. </em><em>According to</em><em> GHS </em><em>under</em><em> the assessment in this dose study</em><em>ing</em> <em>the “</em><em>VetMicoDerm</em><em>”</em><em> drug belongs to the 5th safety category (Grade 5, not classified). </em><em>During </em><em>a long-lasting application of the drug (28 days), the death of the rats </em><em>was </em><em>not adverse</em><em>d</em><em>, the animals had a preserved appetite, responded adequately to external stimuli, reflex excitability was completely preserved.&nbsp; Under hematological and biochemical studies of blood </em><em>of the</em><em> experimental animals, it was found that against the backdrop of insignificant increase in the number of white blood cells in their blood, the number of neutrophils increases and the percentage of lymphocytes decreases significantly. However, </em><em>under the usage of </em><em>the drug in the therapeutic dose (50 mg/kg body weight)</em> <em>the liver function</em> <em>has a tendency to increase. </em><em>I</em><em>ncreas</em><em>ing</em><em> in dose (500 mg/kg) </em><em>of the </em><em>VetMikoDerm </em><em>a</em><em> 10-fold continued its application</em><em> which </em><em>&nbsp;led to an increase in serum concentrations of urea and creatinine,</em><em>increasing </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>the </em><em>mass index can serve as a marker of renal decline</em><em> functional </em><em>condition of the body.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Use in the form of mixed complex of copper 2018-12-11T09:14:00+02:00 T. V. Farionik <p><em>In the complete feeding of animals, including pigs, an important role is given to mineral elements, because they take an active part in the metabolism, provide normal conditions for the work of all internal organs, muscles and nervous system. Mineral elements are used by the body of animals as a structural material, they participate in the enzymatic processes of digestion, absorption, synthesis, decomposition, as well as the allocation of metabolic products from the body. Minerals have a positive effect on the activity of enzymes, hormones, vitamins, stabilize acid-alkaline balance and osmotic pressure. They affect the function of hematopoiesis, endocrine glands, protective reactions of the organism, microflora of the digestive tract, participate in protein biosynthesis, strengthen the permeability of cell membranes, etc. The absence or lack of individual mineral elements, as well as the violation of their ratio leads to a reduction in the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the diet and, consequently, to reduce the productivity of animals. Mineral substances account for 4–5% of the body weight of animals, of which 99.6% are on macro-elements, and 0.4% of trace elements. The main source of mineral elements for animals is feed. However, the mineral composition of the latter depends on the biogeochemical zone, type of soils, climatic conditions, plant species, agrochemical measures, collection, storage, preparation for feeding and other factors. When using copper in the form of chelates, a high coefficient of its assimilation is established. In blood, the serum iron content of iron increased and this contributed to a decrease in total and latent iron binding capacity of serum. Copper chelates more intensively stimulate protein synthesizing function, which manifests itself by increasing the content of total protein, albumin and reducing the amount of globulins. Application of micronutrients and their chelate compounds and other biologically active substances has its advantages, the level of assimilation of heavy metals, radionuclides from contaminated feeds and water is reduced, chelate complexes of trace elements easily penetrate through cell membranes, allowing to carry out purposeful influence on exchange substances and energy and to correct the deficit of TE in the relevant biogeochemical zones.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physiological state and productivity of young pigs for probiotic action 2018-12-11T19:03:51+02:00 V. V. Voronyak K. Y. Leskiv <p><em>Due to the impact of adverse environmental factors, unsatisfactory conditions of pig population, deterioration of food supply, abuse of antibiotics, lack of preventive measures, leads to the development of diseases among pigs, especially young, which leads to a decrease in resistance, body performance, reproduction and reduction of livestock, as well as large economic losses. The use of bacterial preparations from living microorganisms can significantly reduce or even eliminate the use of antibiotics and hormones in the cultivation of healthy animals, to obtain high-quality and safe high-grade products. The aim of the work is to study the effect of probiotic EM – 1 on the physiological state and productivity of young pigs of large white breed. The experiment was conducted on two groups (6 heads each) of animals-analogues, starting from 60 days of age, for 2 months. Animals of the control group received feed produced in the farm. Piglets of the experimental group in addition to the main diet received 5% of feed fermented with em-1. Evaluation of the physiological state and productivity of young pigs was carried out on 60, 90 and 120 days of experience according to the methods adopted in clinical practice. Hygienic, hematological, biochemical, zootechnical and statistical methods of research were used in the performance of the work. The use of probiotic EM-1 in animals of the experimental group led to an increase in hemoglobine concentration by 7.7%, an increase in the number of red blood cells by 13.7%, the total number of leukocytes by 9.52%, and glucose concentration by 11.4%. The advantage of the viability of these pigs for the content of total protein (P &lt;</em> <em>0.05), γ–globulins by 18.6%, the activity of aminotransferases (Al</em><em>А</em><em>T, AsAT; P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.05), the average daily gain increased by 12.3% at the end of the experiment. For feeding piglets feed with probiotic EM-1 increased metabolic processes, resistance and productivity of the body, which indicates a higher level of redox reactions in their body.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Haematological and Biochemical Effects of Cocktail Vaccine (DHLPPi) and Abrus precatorius Seed Aqueous Extract on Canine Parvoviral Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Nigerian Local Dogs 2018-12-11T22:00:19+02:00 M. T. Tion H. A. Fotina A. S. Saganuwan <p><em>Because of increasing incidence of resistance to infectious microorganisms, immunotherapy has been considered as an alternative/complementary to chemotherapy. More so Abrus precatorius leaf extract has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects in animals. In view of this, comparative haematology and biochemistry of cocktail vaccine (DHLPPi) and Abrus precatorius seed extract (APSE) was studied in rats. Sixteen (16) Nigerian local dogs of both sexes weighing 7.19</em> <em>±</em> <em>0.46 kg, aged 15.44</em> <em>±</em> <em>0.76 weeks old were divided into four groups of 4 each. Group 1, 2, 3 and 4 was administered 1 ml of normal saline (0.9%), APSE (2.72 mg/Kg), APSE (2.72 mg/Kg)+DHLPPi (1 ml) and DHLPPi (1 ml) respectively. Fourteen days after administration of the extract and vaccine, 3 ml of blood sample was collected from each of the dogs for haematology and serum biochemistry. The findings revealed significantly (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.05)decreased packed cell volume, haemoglobin, erythrocytes, neutrophils, leucocytes, platelets and increased monocytes, decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the group administered extract and extract/vaccine. Hence, the extract and extract/DHLPPi vaccine can be used in prevention chronic viral infection of dogs.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphological peculiarites and functional activity of adipose-derived mesenchimal stem cells during in vitro cultivation conditions 2018-12-11T22:36:54+02:00 L. V. Kladnytska A. I. Mazurkevych V. T. Khomych T. A. Mazurkevych Z. G. Stegney M. O. Maluk L. V. Garmanchuk S. V. Velychko V. B. Danilov Y. O. Kharkevych D. V. Shelest V. S. Velychko I. A. Stupak <p><em>The studies were conducted on 2-3-months-old males of C57BL/6 mice weighing 20</em><em>–</em><em>24 g. Obtaining and cultivating of </em><em>adipose-derived mesenchimal stem cells (AD </em><em>MSCs</em><em>)</em><em> were carried out in a sterile laminar box with compliance of conditions of asepsis and antiseptics.</em><em> AD </em><em>MSCs of the 2, 4, 7 and 12 passages were analyzed</em><em>. </em><em>Morphometric</em><em> analysis was performed using a light microscopy. Morphometric parameters such as cell and nucleus area or nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (NCR) were calculated using the Axiovision light microscope (Carl Zeiss, Germany) and ImageJ 1.45 software.</em> <em>Trypan blue dye used for investigation of the viability of MSC. </em><em>The morphological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue during the process of cultivation changes: at the first passages of cultivation, the cells are spindle-shaped with two, at least three, long long cytoplasmic processes, located bipolar. Near the nucleus the Golgi complex is clearly visible – a sign of active cells. At later passages cells have a small cytoplasmic processes and the bipolar arrangement of processes changes by stellar arrangement. Golgi complex is also clearly visualized.</em> <em>The indicator of the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio in MSC from adipose tissue is significantly reduced at 7 passage to 0.2189 ± 0.0122 (P &lt; 0.01), and at 12 passage to 0.1111 ± 0.0086 (P &lt; 0.001) compared to the 2 passage.</em> <em>The coefficient of proliferation of MSC from adipose tissue is significantly reduced at 12th passage.</em> <em>The viability of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue with an increasing of a number of passages significantly reduces </em><em>and at</em><em> the 12th passage of cultivation reaches </em><em>84,67 ± 1,36<sup>*</sup></em><em> (P &lt; 0.05).</em> <em>The content of apoptotic cells that exhibited sensitivity to serum-free significantly increased at 7 and 12 passages and was respectively 21.33 ± 1.36 (P &lt; 0.05) and 23.67 ± 0.97% (P &lt; 0.05).</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Treatment of horses with asthma syndrome complicated myocardiodystrophy 2018-12-12T09:39:01+02:00 I. Maksymovych L. Slivinska <p><em>It has been established that in comorbid (cardiopulmonary) pathology in horses with asthma patients develop a syndrome of airway obstruction, morphofunctional changes in the erythrocyte system, impaired blood gas transmission function, increased permeability of cell membranes, which leads to complications in the form of myocardiodystrophy and cardiac failure.</em> <em>The</em> <em>use</em> <em>of</em> <em>a</em> <em>complex</em> <em>treatment</em> <em>regimen</em> <em>for</em> <em>horses</em> <em>with</em> <em>asthma</em> <em>and</em> <em>complicated</em> <em>myocardiodystrophy</em> <em>contributed</em> <em>to</em> <em>reducing</em> <em>attacks</em> <em>of</em> <em>respiratory</em> <em>dysfunction</em> <em>and</em> <em>symptoms</em> <em>of</em> <em>heart</em> <em>failure</em><em>, </em><em>reducing</em> <em>the</em> <em>incidence</em> <em>of</em> <em>arrhythmias</em> <em>and</em> <em>valvular</em> <em>regurgitation</em><em>, </em><em>reducing</em> <em>the</em> <em>number</em> <em>of</em> <em>neutrophils</em> <em>in</em> <em>the</em> <em>BAL</em> <em>washings</em><em>, </em><em>and</em> <em>reducing</em> <em>indicators</em> <em>characteristic</em> <em>of</em> <em>tissue</em> <em>hypoxia</em><em>, </em><em>(decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, </em><em>mean corpuscular volume</em><em> and </em><em>mean corpuscular hemoglobin</em><em>), elimination of the inflammatory process in the respiratory tract (decrease in the number of leukocytes, stab and segmented neutrophils), a decrease in the indices characterizing the integrity of the cardiomyocyte membranes (decrease in the activity of C</em><em>К</em><em>, C</em><em>К</em><em>-MB, LDH, LDH-1), restoration of diffuse capacity of the lungs (decrease in pH and increase in pO2 and pCO2 of blood).</em> <em>The mechanism of the positive effect of drugs that were used to </em><em>treatment of horses with asthma </em><em>syndrome</em><em> with complicated myocardiodystrophy, which is achieved due to the cardio metabolic (cytoprotective) effect and antihypoxic ability to improve the diffusion of gases through the alveolar-capillary membrane, is established. On the one hand, it improves metabolic processes in the myocardium and, accordingly, reduces the manifestations of heart failure, and on the other hand, reduces hypoxia and respiratory failure (respiratory dysfunction), as one of the central pathogenetic mechanisms of cardiorespiratory comorbidity.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toxicity and Biological Value of Broiler Chicken Meat in case of Feeding the “Aquasan” Acidifier 2018-12-12T14:06:20+02:00 O. V. Demchyschyn M. D. Kuhtyn Yu. B. Perkiy <p><em>Employees of the Ternopil Research Station on the basis of organic and inorganic acids created a new liquid acidifier for broiler chickens called the “Aquasan”. It positively affects the preservation, productivity and constant microflora of the digestive tract in chickens. An important indicator of meat is its harmlessness and biological value. The purpose of the paper was to research the toxicity and biological value of chicken meat in case of feeding the stock with the “Aquasan” acidifier. The research was conducted on three groups of chicken broilers of the breed Ross 308</em>–<em>50 heads in each group. The first group of chickens was the control one, and the second group of chickens was fed with 0.1</em> <em>% solution of the “Aquasan” acidifier from the 27<sup>th</sup> day of fattening within 10 days (27<sup>th</sup></em>–<em>31<sup>st</sup> and 34<sup>th</sup></em>–<em>38<sup>th</sup> days). The growing period lasted 43 days. Toxico-biological evaluation of chicken meat was carried out by express method using infusorias</em> <em>Tetrachymena</em> <em>pyriformis. Study of toxicity of pectoral and thigh muscles of the chickens have shown that within 24 hours of observing the infusorias, there was no death or inhibition of growth in an environment. Only on the 24<sup>th</sup> hour of observing in the experimental and control groups, there were infusorias with changes in shape and nature of movement in the amount of 0.1</em>–<em>0.2% cultures. The results of the research indicate that there is no acute and subacute toxicity of broiler meat in case of feeding the Acquasan acidifier. After 96 hours of research, 0.5</em>–<em>0.6</em> <em>% of dead infusorias was found in samples of pectoral and thigh muscles in both groups. Also, there were infusorias with changes in shape and nature of movement on the 4th day, 0.3</em>–<em>0.4% and 0.2</em>–<em>0.3% respectively. There were no changes in growth of infusorias in the test group. Comparing the results of studies with control samples, it can be noted that the broiler chicken meat does not exhibit chronic toxicity. During 96 hours of research on the toxicity of chicken meat, no significant changes were found in the experimental group. Consequently, chicken meat from broilers grown with the use of “Aquasan” acidifier according to the express method is non-toxic, i.e. harmless for consumption. During the study of biological value of chicken meat, calculation of number of infusorias who grew up on the 4th day in the environment of the research samples of pectoral and thigh muscles, showed a lack of credible changes in their number as compared with the control. The absence of a reliable decrease in the relative biological value of meat indicates the high quality of the broiler chicken product in case of feeding them with the “Aquasan” acidifier.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Treatment of cats for associated bordetellosis in the private sector of Poltava 2018-12-12T14:17:52+02:00 O. O. Peredera I. V. Lavrinenko R. V. Peredera I. A. Zhernosik <p><em>For suspicion of an infectious disease of cats, diagnostic tests were conducted. From the purulent leakages of the nasal cavity of the cat, pure cultures of the Bordetal, Escherichia and Staphylococcus cultures were obtained. Differential environments were used for this purpose. For effective treatment, each of the isolated cultures was tested for antibacterial sensitivity. According to the results, isolated cultures showed the highest sensitivity to gentamicin and enrofloxacin. Given the sensitivity of the isolated microflora, enrofloxacin-50 was used in the range of 0.1 ml per 1 kg of body weight for 5 days subcutaneously.</em> <em>Cats are a kind of animals that are sensitive to antibacterial substances. The choice of enrofloxacin was due to the lack of reactions and sensitivity to this drug in cats. As the immunomodulatory agents, which increase the overall resistance of the body used Katozal and Gamavat. Katozal was used for cats once a day subcutaneously for 5 days, at a dose of 0.5 ml for 5 days. Gamavit was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 0.3</em>–<em>0.5 ml/kg body weight (therapeutic dose). Tetravit was used as a vitamin preparation. It was injected subcutaneously 0.3 ml; once in 7 days. Improvement of the clinical condition of the diseased animal was observed the second day after the start of treatment; the animal revived, appetite appeared, the mucus-purulent discharge from the nasal cavity stopped. As bordeliosis is transmitted by airborne droplet, air disinfection was carried out using a bactericidal irradiator BactoSfera OBB 36 P with a quartz lamp. To disinfect the bactericidal lamp was switched on every day </em>–<em> in the morning and evening for 20 minutes.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PCR-test system specific identification Parachlamydia acanthamoebae 2018-12-12T14:51:32+02:00 V. K. Zezekalo S. B. Peredera T. V. Buslik K. F. Pochernyaev <p><em>Chlamydia-like bacteria Parachlamydia acanthamoebae belongs to the phylum Chlamydiae, class Chlamydiia, order Chlamydiales, family Parahlamydiaceae, genus Parachlamydia. The following terms were introduced to designate Chlamydiales bacteria that are not members of the Chlamydia genus: Chlamydia-related bacteria – CRB, Chlamydia-like bacteria and Chlamydia-like organisms – CLOs. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is associated with respiratory diseases in humans and ruminants, as well as diseases of the reproductive organs leading to abortions, or the birth of weak or non-viable offspring. Unfortunately, there are no such test systems in the arsenal of humane and veterinary medicine of Ukraine, which could identify and differentiate </em><em>С</em><em>hlamydia-related organisms, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in particular. In this regard, PCR test system has been developed for the identification and species differentiation of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, the bacteria of the Parachlamydiaceae family, which is the causative agent of chlamydiosis in ruminants and humans. Conducted bioinformatics studies revealed species-specific regions of the Parachlamydia acanthamoebae genome, which were used to develop the nucleotide structure of oligonucleotide primers, which allow to amplify the DNA fragment of the 16S rRNA gene specific for the bacterium Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, the size of 88 base pairs. Verification of the analytical specificity of the PCR test system was confirmed by amplifying 9 control DNA of members of the order Chlamydiales: Waddlia chrondophila, Clavochlamydia salmonicola, Piscichlamydia salmonis, Chlamydia avium, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia caviae. The demand for such test systems is due not only to their use in scientific research to isolate and study individual strains, to conduct epizootic monitoring, but also for the purpose of effective treatment, since distinct species have diverse sensitivity or even insensitivity to different types of antibiotics and vary in the source of infection and mode of transmission.</em></p> 2018-12-10T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##