Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Scientific Messenger specializes in veterinary medicine and genetics Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S. Gzhytskyi en-US Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies 2413-5550 Immunobiological status of the body of cows during mastitis <p>The work reveals the immunobiological aspects of lactation of cows and changes in immunobiological reactivity in the development of mastitis.The authors present modern scientific data on the local immune protection of the mammary gland of cows. Main stages of ontogenetic development of cellular immunity of the mammary gland of cows were traced during clinical and experimental studies. The number of somatic cells in the secret of the mammary gland of the primates was dependent on the period of the functioning of the mammary gland. In the cytology of colostrum mostly (56.00 ± 1.90%) neutrophil granulocytes were predominant, in the middle period of lactation (3–5th month) the proportion of epithelial cells increased (from 29.51 ± 2.17 to 49.59 ± 1.94%), during the launch period, the population of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was changing as well, which virtually recovered to the original level and increased during the dry period. However, at the end of lactation, during the onset and dry, with the development of involutionary processes in the mammary gland, a sharp decrease in cytochemical reactivity of intracellular lysozyme of phagocytic cells was observed. To conduct clinical and experimental studies, three groups of animals were formed. As a result, it was found out that subclinical mastitis of cows is accompanied by a change in the immunobiological reactivity. Purulent-catarrhal mastitis in cows was manifested by significant changes in the parameters of nonspecific immunological reactivity. In the peripheral blood of cows with subclinical mastitis, the number of reactive microphages increased sharply (P &lt; 0.001). In parallel with this, the number of activated phagocytes with myeloperoxidase granules also increased in the peripheral blood (P &lt; 0.01). Activation of intra-leukocyte lysozyme phagocytic cells was less intensive. Subclinical udder pathology was accompanied by an increase in the number of degranulated cells (P &lt; 0.001), which is one of the specific properties of cytomorphological changes in programmed death (apoptosis). Subclinical inflammation of the mammary glands mastitis of cows was accompanied by a certain decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes (P &lt; 0.001). Clinical and experimental studies have shown that subclinical and purulent-catarrhal mastitis of cows undergo significant changes in systemic immunity. In the pathophysiological model of subclinical and purulent-catarrhal mastitis, the functional state of the T-link of specific immunity was disturbed, the bactericidal activity of blood serum and phagocytosis were suppressed, which occurred against the background of changes in the cytochemical reactivity of phagocytic cells circulating immune complexes and molecules with an average molecular weigh.</p> M.M. Zhelavskyi O.Ya. Dmytriv ##submission.copyrightStatement## Creative Commons «Attribution» 4.0 2018-08-25 2018-08-25 20 88 3 10 Value and feasibility of probiotic use <p><em>The article substantiates the importance, the principle of the action of probiotics, the purpose of their application, the mechanisms of therapeutic and prophylactic action, the effectiveness of the use of probiotic drugs and the feasibility of their application. It is known that the ideal probiotic should be of the origin of the body for which it will be used, be resistant to acids and bile, capable of adhesion and colonization in the intestinal tract or other ecosystems, to produce antibiotic substances, to prevent the development of cariogenic and pathogenic microorganisms, to be safe for use in products and clinics and have a well-defined and validated clinical trial with a positive effect on human or animal health. Positive effects of probiotics are manifested in reducing the duration of toxic effects or increasing the resistance to action of pathogens. The components of probiotics are representatives of normal microflora, and therefore the main mechanisms that determine their degree and direction of healing effect on the host organism are colonization resistance and immunomodulatory ability, regulation of metabolic processes and detoxification action, anti-carcinogenic activity. These functions are implemented through enzymatic, vitamin-synthesizing, antagonistic and adhesive activity. Strains of bacteria of probiotics produce a wide range of digestive enzymes - amylase, lipase, protease, pectinase, endoglucanose and phytase. Important impetus for the use of probiotics was the recommendations and requirements for limiting the use of antibiotics in livestock used for therapeutic purposes. The adverse effect of fodder antibiotics is the appearance of diarrhea in animals, as well as the risk of the formation and rapid reproduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Salmonella spec. Probiotic drugs are most often used in the treatment of a number of pathological conditions occurring against the background of disturbed normal microflora of the human body. Probiotic drugs can also be used for the prevention and treatment of major dental diseases: caries, chronic generalized periodontitis of catarrhal gingivitis, aphthous stomatitis. In experimental studies, it has been shown that intestinal microbiota, interacting with the host organism, can increase the number of osteoclasts, for example, in the femoral bones, and, consequently, decrease their density, which confirms the growth of catabolic activity of bones under conditions of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. Recently, for the normalization of metabolic processes in the organism of farm animals and poultry began to use probiotic drugs, which, in essence, are a living microbial supplement to the feed and have a positive effect on the body through improving its intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics, as environmentally safe drugs, help to reduce the man-caused and microbial stress on the animals organism in conditions of intensive production of livestock products, which prevents the development of many pathologies in animals, and, consequently, in humans. Probiotic products should be characterized by a pronounced antagonistic activity to a wide range of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, to be strong immunomodulators and to produce bacteriocin and enzymes. The bacteria that are part of the probiotics should remain viable when passing through the gastrointestinal tract of animals and poultry, as well as in the production of feed (for example, in granulation). At present, the effectiveness of the use of probiotics for stimulation of growth intensity and prevention of diseases of young animals, increase of productivity and quality of received products, prevention of gynecological diseases in cows, prevention of viral diseases of bees and increase of their productivity, reduction of parasitic diseases in fish and increase of efficiency of fish farming is substantiated. A promising direction for improving probiotics is the development of complex drugs, which include different types of bacterial cultures that complement each other by specific activity and the effect on opportunistic microorganisms.</em></p> R.P. Paraniak B.M. Kalyn T.B. Nahirniak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-11 2018-06-11 20 88 116 121 10.15421/nvlvet8723 Bactericidal and disinfective properties of disinfectant «GK-10» <p><em>The article presents the results of research on bactericidal properties of the new domestic disinfectant «GK-10», which is a transparent solution of light yellow color, without mechanical inclusions with a specific odor. It is well mixed with water. It is based on alkyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (QAC) and dodecylbispropylentriamine (1,3-prodadiene) (tertiary amines). Was found bactericidal dilution (BD), bactericidal concentration (BC), phenolic coefficient (FC) and protein index (PI). Thus, the most susceptible to the action of the disinfectant were were gram-negative bacteria E. coli, where cell death occurred at 10 and 30 minute exposures at concentrations of 0.19 and 0.14%, respectively. Due to the action of the disinfectant on the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, cell death came at these exposures at concentrations 0.27 and 0.19%, respectively. The least susceptible to the action of the disinfectant were vegetative forms of B. subtilis, the death of these bacteria came at concentrations 0.37 and 0.27% at 10 and 30 minutes of exposure, respectively. Effects of disinfectant was over 5.38 and 2.74 times higher on microorganisms of E.&nbsp;coli and S. aureus, respectively, of the decontamination effect of phenol, and in the presence of protein, the activity of the disinfectant is reduced by 6.45 times. The efficiency of the disinfectant for the strains of microorganisms at the disinfestation of the test-object surfaces is determined. It has been established that for test cultures of E. coli and S. aureus 0.05–0.3% of disinfectant concentration is ineffective, and 0.5% its disinfectant concentration for disinfection of hard surfaces in preventive disinfection of premises for animals is insufficient for exposure in 120 minutes. For spore form B. subtilis 1.0% disinfectant concentration was ineffective. 1.0% concentration is effective for aseptic cleaning: slaughterhouses, processing shops, laboratory facilities, means of transporting products of animal origin, soaking clothes before washing, and also for treating surfaces of wood, metal and glazed tile at exposures of 60 minutes and more, and when spore forms of microorganisms, the working concentration of insoluble in disinfection of objects subject to veterinary control should be 3% and above. It has been proved that the disinfectant «GK-10» is effective at a concentration of 0.5% at exposure for 180 minutes and at a concentration of 1.0% at an exposure of 120 minutes for the sanation and preventive disinfection of premises for animals.</em></p> O.L. Tishyn R.V. Khomiak G.T. Kopijchuk M.M. Danko S.A. Ponomariova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 3 7 10.15421/nvlvet8701 To studying the development of technological stress in the organism of piglets during the influence of the feed additives «Praimiks Bionorm K» <p><em>The article is devoted to increasing the preserving and survival of piglets in conditions of industrial cultivation, where their organism is exposed to constant effects of adverse technological factors. The state of stress that occurs in this case leads to a decrease in the rate of growth and resistance of the young to a variety of diseases and can ultimately cause death of animals. One of the most promising directions for preventing the negative effects of stress and increasing the overall resistance of the piglet organism is the search, development and introduction of dietary supplements that increase physiological processes in the body, improve metabolism, increase the energy of growth, increase the yield of meat products. The purpose of the work was to find out the physiological state of a piglet organism during the period of weaning at the influence of the biologically active feed supplement «Praimiks Bionorm K» in the conditions of the SEPC «Komarnivsky». The research was carried out on piglets of 5 – 60-day-old age of the Poltava beef breed. Technological stress was the weaning of piglets at 40 days of age and the group maintenance of them with a change in the structure of the ration during the growing season. Piglets of the experimental group, together with the main feed, were additionally fed with «Praimiks Bionorm K» in the amount of 9.0 g/100 kg of feed (manufacturer – biotechnology company «Ariadna» Odessa). According to the results of the conducted research, it was found that the process of adaptation of the organism of the piglets of the control group to the stress isolation after 5 days was accompanied by an increase in blood hemoglobin concentration in 1.35 times (P &lt; 0.01), the number of leukocytes – by 1.21 times (P &lt; 0.05) at the expense of rodent and segmental neutrophils and monocytes – 1.54 times (P &lt; 0.01), with a decrease in the number of eosinophils – 3.0 times (P &lt; 0.001) and lymphocytes – 1.15 times (P &lt; 0.01), compared with the period before weaning. 20 days after weaning in the K group, there was a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood by 2.25 times in the blood and lymphocytes by 1.25 times (P &lt; 0.01), in the increase in the cellular and segmental neutrophils by 2.15 and 1.90 times, monocytes – by 1.85 times (P &lt; 0.01) in comparison with the period before weaning. Neutrophilia, lymphopenia and eosinopenia were the most pronounced and persistent signs of stress in the piglets of the K group that arose out of the regulatory influence of glucocorticoids. While using biologically active feed supplement «Praimiks-Bionorm K» 5 days after weaning in the blood of piglets, the content of hemoglobin increased by 1.26 times; after 20 days its concentration increased by 1.22 times, as well as the increase in the number of leukocytes in 1.22 times (P &lt; 0.01), neutrophils of rod-nuclei – 2.0 times, segmental ones – 1.37 times (P &lt; 0.01), compared to control. The obtained results indicate that the use of BAFA «Praimiks Bionorm-K» allows to prevent the development of stressful events in the piglet organism, improve the status of the cellular level of nonspecific resistance and the level of productivity during the period of weaning and at different stages of development of the stress reaction after weaning.</em></p> V.G. Stoyanovskyy O.I. Kamratska I.A. Kolomiіets O.I. Slepokura ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 8 12 10.15421/nvlvet8702 Study of antibacterial properties of honey to methycilin resistant Staphylococcus <p><em>For publishing this article, two important ideas were indicated: the first one is the necessity of scientific research to establish antibacterial properties in those substances that can replace antibiotics in the fight against antibiotic resistant microorganisms; the second is to expand the possibilities for using a national Ukrainian product, such as honey. Ukraine is one of the important exporters of honey in the EU. This honey may have unique physical and chemical properties that will characterize its therapeutic effect. In other countries, these issues are actively studied by scientists, which provide special healing brands to certain its species. These issues are not well study in Ukraine. The aim of present study was to an experimental study of the use of antibacterial properties of honey in relation to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. Materials for research were isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRSS) and samples of natural honey that were obtained from apiaries of the Odessa region. The standard methods of isolation Staphylococcus spp and methods determining the quality of honey were used. Qualitative indicators of honey included organoleptic studies, moisture and acidity, proline content. Determination of antibacterial properties of honey was studied in dilution it in distilled water in proportions 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 3:1 with following plating in nutrient agar wells on Petri dishes. It has been experimentally established that honey may be an excellent remedy against MRSS, but not all honey has the same antimicrobial activity. It has been established that the antibacterial properties of honey in relation to MRSS are influenced by the physical and chemical composition, namely the content of proline. It has been experimentally established that most types of investigated honey samples with high qualitative indices exhibited antibacterial action against antibiotic-resistant isolates of Staphylococcus spp., With higher levels of antibacterial activity showing those honey samples that had a higher proline content of more than 350 mg/kg. It was established that the antibacterial action of honey against antibiotic resistant isolates of Staphylococcus spp. It is better manifested in more concentrated solutions – when diluted in the ratio of honey / solvent as 2:1 and 3:1 (growth retardation zones from 34 mm to 58 mm) compared to solutions of honey diluted in proportions 1:1 and 1:2 (growth retardation zones from 10 mm to 15 mm).</em></p> V.V. Kasianchuk O.М. Berhilevych I.V. Negai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 13 18 10.15421/nvlvet8703 Critically important antimicrobial preparations for veterinary medicine <p><em>The resistance of microorganisms, bacterial pathogens, to antimicrobials is a global problem in both healthcare and veterinary medicine. It is believed that the main reason for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in humans is the transfer of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms or genes, determinants of resistance, through products of animal origin from productive animals to humans. Thus, the main way of antimicrobial resistance containment is to restrain and minimize it through the prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine, especially those that are critically important for productive animals. In addition, some classes of antibacterial substances and antibiotics</em><em>,</em><em> that are widely used in humane medicine</em><em>,</em><em> are used in veterinary medicine. The need to use and preserve these important therapeutic agents is relevant from the point of view of the concept «One Health». The article provides a list of all antibacterial substances used by productive animals for their importance in veterinary medicine, developed by a special group of experts of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Any antimicrobial agent authorized for use in veterinary medicine for productive </em><em>animals</em><em>, in accordance with the criteria for quality, safety and efficacy as defined in Section 6.9 of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code</em><em>,</em><em> is considered to be important for veterinary medicine. All the antimicrobial substances used for productive animals are div</em><em>i</em><em>ded in this list on critical, very important and important for veterinary medicine. </em><em>Attention was also drawn to the peculiarities of the use of critical antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine, especially those recognized as critical in humane medicine. These include aminoglycosides, cephalosporins of the 3rd and 4th generation, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, macrolides, some penicillins and polymyxins. The article also describes the classification of critical antimicrobials by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Panel of Experts on Antimicrobials (AMEG) of the WHO based on the risk profile for humans through the development of antimicrobial resistance after application to productive animals.</em><em> Such an assessment will give veterinary practitioners an important justification when they make decisions about the clinical treatment of bacterial infections and the responsible appointment of antimicrobial therapy. This will help to reach the balance among the achievement of the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy of productive animals, reducing of the selective pressure on the development of antibiotic resistance and ensuring of a high level of human health.</em></p> T.I. Stetsko V.P. Muzyka V.M. Hunchak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 19 26 10.15421/nvlvet8704 The influence of probiotic fodder additives on the morphofunctional state of duodenum pigs <p><em>The article is dedicated to the study of the effect of a class of microorganisms and substances of microbial and other origin that are used in feeding pigs to achieve maximum growth in animal mass, as well as therapeutic purposes. Study of the effect of biologically active additives on the state of the pig's digestive system. The article considers the rational nutrition that increase the productivity and reproductive capacity of animals, and also prevent the emergence of profound disturbances of all metabolic processes which leads to a decrease in resistance to productivity, a clinically pronounced disease of adult animals and young animals. The authors pay attention to the morphometric parameters, ultrastructure and content of nucleic acids in the wall of the duodenum of pigs by forage feeding with the addition of probiotic fodder additive «Probion-forte» in dose of 1 g/kg of fodder. Research were conducted on 28 day pigs, breed «Large White». It was formed two groups of piglets per 30 heads; piglets were fed with standard mixed fodders; piglets from the first group were received standard mixed fodder with the addition of&nbsp; probiotic fodder additive «Probion-forte» in dose 1 g/kg of fodder for 42 days. After the slaughter of&nbsp; piglets, pieces of duodenum for histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies were selected. Statistical significance of differences was determined by Student's t test , assuming 5% estimate error. It was shown that feeding with forage within 42 days from the addition of probiotic fodder additive «Probion-forte» at a dose of 1 g/kg, villus height is increase, crypt depth and a number of plasma cells in the lamina propria of mucosa of the duodenum, which helps the digestive process and increase the area of nutrient absorption in the intestines. The number of plasma cells are increased in the lamina propria of mucosa and testify immunomodulatory effect of fodder additives. Ultra structural alteration of microvilli and changes in the nuclei of duodenal enterocytes of piglets of the first group indicates a more pronounced acfunctional activity of enterocytes and thereby increases the activity of parietal digestion in the intestine. As a conclusion, the task by definition performed of the effective dose of probiotic in feed for pig it can be considered completed and we can state the probiotics can be incorporated, as a alternative to antibiotics and increase the weight gain of animals and also to increase the level of immune resistance of the organism.</em></p> G.I. Kotsyumbas V.M. Lemishevskyi A.K. Kostyniuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 27 31 10.15421/nvlvet8705 Adaptation of the status of non-specific resistance of the ducks organism in stress conditions inclusion in the ration of probiotical additives <p><em>The article deals with the question of adaptation of the ducks organism during industrial cultivation for action of stress. The complex of successive stage reactions, caused by the functioning of stress-implementing systems, arise in the body of the poultry in response to the influence of destabilizing factors and aimed at neutralizing these factors, preservation of homeostasis. Increasing the influence of technological stress factors leads to a decrease in the immune status of the duck organism. The study of the effectiveness of incorporating into the diet ducks harmless feed additives, which contributes to the normalization of the course of adaptive-compensatory reactions in their body during the critical periods of postnatal ontogenesis and can serve as anti-stress prevention in conditions of industrial growth of this species of poultry remains relevant. The purpose of the work is to find out the implementation of an adaptation syndrome in the system of indices of non-specific resistance of the body of ducks when it is included in the diet of the biologically active feed supplement «Primix Bionorm K» and supplements «Biovir». The experiment was conducted on clinically healthy young ducks of the Pekin breed of egg production line. In the 270-day age, all three groups of ducks were modeled experimental technological stress in the form of prolonged transport. From 240 to 270 days of age, ducks additionally fed the additive «Primix Bionorm K» and was pouring with water an additive «Biovir». The material for research was blood, which was taken until morning feeding after slaughter on 240 days of life (to stress), 270 days of life (stage of anxiety), at 273 and 285 days (stages of resistance). Adaptation of the state of non-specific resistance of the duck of the control group to the control group under conditions of stress in the anxiety stage is characterized by an increase of 17.3% (Р &lt; 0.05) of the value of the bactericidal activity of the blood serum, a decrease of 8.5% of the value of lysozyme activity of the blood serum, by 9.3% of phagocytic activity against the background of growth on 8.7% of the number of circulating immune complexes compared to 240-day-old poultry. At the stage of resistance there is a decrease in the amount of blood serum bactericidal activity by 17.3% (Р &lt; 0.05), an increase in the activity of lysozyme in blood serum by 8.5%, and the number of immune complexes by 20.7% (Р &lt; 0.05), with the stabilization of the studied parameters at the later stages of the development of a stress reaction. In these periods, a decrease in the body weight of control group ducks was set at 5.7 – 6.8%. Feeding of the additive «Primix Bionorm K» during the period of the implementation of the stress syndrome has a positive effect on the indices of the cellular and humoral level of nonspecific resistance in the form of an increase in the amount of bactericidal activity of the serum on 38.2% (P &lt; 0.05), an increase in the activity of phagocytosis by 15.1% (P &lt; 0.05), phagocytic index – by 36.1% (P &lt; 0.05) with a decrease in the number of circulating immune complexes by 15.5%. The presentation of the additive «Biovir» causes an increase in the level of bactericidal and lysozyme activity of the blood serum on 47.3% (P &lt; 0.01) and 18.7% (P &lt; 0.05). The use of additives can reduce the negative effect of transport stress in the duck body, increase nutrient uptake, as indicated by an increase in the body weight of experimental birds in the average by 7.1–10.5% (P &lt; 0.05) during the development of the adaptive syndrome.</em></p> V.G. Stoyanovskyy A.О. Krogh I.A. Kolomiіets ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 32 37 10.15421/nvlvet8706 The study of essential oil on antimicrobial activity and their composition towards microorganism <p><em>In the course of the research, the microorganisms that often caused disease for animals were used, according to the literature, were genetically predisposed to resistance to traditional antibiotics and needed to find new effective means to combat them.</em> <em>It was used different antibiotic substances benzalkonium chloride, silver nanoparticles, and promising in this direction, essential oils of plants: fir, eucalyptus. The article provides information on the selection and study of the efficacy of substances, components with essential oils necessary for the development of complex bactericidal agents and the study of their antimicrobial activity against microorganisms.</em> <em>In determining the antimicrobial activity of essential oils, test cultures were used: Microccoccus luteus ATCC9341, Microccoccus lisogenicus, B. subtilis AATCC6633, B.cereus ATCC6633, S. aureus 209-P, S. zooepidemicus, Clebsiella spp, Salmonella cholerae suis, Pasterella multocida from the museum of State Scientific and Control Institute of Biotechnology and strains of microorganisms.</em> <em>The determination of fungicidal acity was performed on microscopic molds of Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium urticae, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus. In experiments with Staphilococcus aureus, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Pasteurella multocida, the antibiotic action of essential oils of eucalyptus and puff was confirmed and the possibility of its enhancement by the addition of quaternary ammonium compounds was confirmed.</em> <em>According to the results, the use as an alternative to antibiotics and disinfectants of preparations based on vegetable essential oils in the form of aerosols not only improves the number of animals from respiratory infections of bacterial origin, but also significantly improves the ecological conditions of the work of personnel in livestock buildings, promotes treatment and prevention respiratory diseases.</em> <em>The investigations have proved the expediency of using vegetable essential oils for the design of highly effective drugs and the possibility of enhancing their antimicrobial activity by quaternary ammonium compounds and silver nanoparticles, as well as a complex preparation </em><em>«</em><em>Asept</em><em>»</em><em> for aerosol application in the presence of animals.</em></p> V.L. Kovalenko O.O. Napnenko I. Chornyi A.V. Zagrebelnyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 38 41 10.15421/nvlvet8707 Consumption of antimicrobials in the European Union and indications for their rational administration <p><em>Antimicrobials are essential for the medical care and health of animals and livestock populations. On the other hand it is generally accepted that the increase in prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem. </em><em>Therefore, in many countries of the world, the consumption of antibiotics and the resistance of pathogens isolated from humans and animals are monitored. Collected data indicate </em><em>the need to reduce antimicrobial use in humans and in food-producing animals. </em><em>This goal can only be achieved if a</em><em>ntimicrobials</em><em> will be used rationally and in accordance with the latest knowledge.</em></p> J.J. Jaroszewski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 42 44 10.15421/nvlvet8708 The principles of rational chemotherapy of bacterial infections in poultry <p><em>Growing levels of microbial resistance to chemotherapeutic agents pose a threat to public health and constitute a global problem. The above can be often attributed to improper and excessive use of antibacterial drugs in veterinary and human medicine, animal breeding, agriculture and industry. To address this problem, veterinary and human health practitioners, animal breeders and the public have to be made aware of the consequences and threats associated with the uncontrolled use of antibacterial preparations. In recent years, many countries have implemented programs for monitoring antibiotic resistance which provide valuable information about the applied antibiotics and the resistance of various bacterial species colonizing livestock, poultry and the environment. Special attention should be paid to the sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistance. There are no easy solutions to this highly complex problem. The relevant measures should address multiple factors, beginning from rational and controlled use of chemotherapeutic agents in veterinary practice, to biosecurity in animal farms, food production hygiene, and sanitary and veterinary inspections in the food chain. The tissues of treated birds should not contain antibiotic residues upon slaughter. Rational use of antibiotics should minimize the risk of drug resistance and decrease treatment costs without compromising the efficacy of treatment. Therefore, the key principles of antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections in poultry should be the adequate selection and dosage of the administered drug, a sound knowledge of the drug’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, as well as a knowledge of the differences between bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs and between time-dependent and concentration-dependent drugs. There is an urgent need to revise the existing approach to the use of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of poultry diseases, and to increase the awareness that antibiotics cannot compensate for the failure to observe the fundamental principles of biosecurity in all stages of poultry farming.</em></p> B. Tykałowski A. Koncicki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 45 49 10.15421/nvlvet8709 The resistance of isolated bacteria out of the dental plaque of dogs to antibiotics <p><em>The dental plaque may be defined as a biotope of the oral cavity, where the microflora exists in two versions: parietal and cavitary (planktonic). It represents a biofilm in which associations of microorganisms are gathered in microcolonies which are surrounded by a protective matrix and are attached to a biotic or abiotic surface. The water channels go through the biofilm and carry nutrients and products of microorganisms' vital functions are washed away by the flow of saliva. Microorganisms in a biofilm demonstrate high resistance to antimicrobial agents because of the fact that substances only with low molecular weight are allowed to pass through. Therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the resistance of planktonic and biofilm microflora isolated out of the dental plaque of dogs with chronic catarrhal gingivitis to antibiotics. Research materials include the washings out of the teeth selected by a sterile cotton swab, which was put into a 1cm<sup>3</sup> test tube of the sterile solution with 0.5% mass fraction of sodium chloride. Primary sowings of the material for the detection of Micrococcus and Staphylococcus were carried out on MPA containing 7% sodium chloride and 5% of the blood of cattle, Streptococcus – on the Garro environment, Enterococcus – on Enterococagar, Corynebacterium – on MPA with 5% of the blood of cattle, Acinetobacter – on the King B environment for not fermented microorganisms and was grown at 37°C, Pseudomonas spp. – on the environment which contains 0.2% of N-cetylperdine chloride, E. coli – on the Endo environment. Identification of the selected microorganisms was carried out due to the determinant of bacteria Berge. Sensitivity of the selected microorganisms to antibiotics was researched by the Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion Method, and its sensitivity to microorganisms in the biofilm by Stewart P.S. It was found that among the planktonic forms of the dental plaque microorganisms were sensitive to ampicillin + sulbactam – 91.0, enrofloxacin – 82.0, tylosin – 83.3, ceftiofur – 79.3, vancomycin – 75.2, gentamicin and doxycycline – 66.2, cefazolin – 64.6, ceftriaxone – 64.0, oxacillin – 63.5 and cefuroxime – 60.0% of cultures.Oxacillin, tylosin, cefazolin and enrofloxacin are recommended to reduce the risk of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in case of the detection of Staphylococcus spp. in dental plaques, ampicillin + sulbactam, ceftiofur – in case of the detection of Corynebacterium spp., cefuroxime and ceftriaxone in case of the detection of Streptococcus spp., gentamicin – Micrococcus spp., vancomycin – Enterococcus spp. and doxycycline – in case of the detection of Acinetobacter spp. in dental plaques.</em></p> N. Semaniuk V. Semaniuk M. Kukhtyn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 50 54 10.15421/nvlvet8710 Application of intrauterine aerosol preparation for the treatment of cows with postpartum complications <p><em>Despite the detailed study of the causes of postpartum endometritis in cows, its course and the implementation of therapeutic and prophylactic measures aimed at preventing obstetric and gynecological pathology, this problem remains extremely relevant and requires comprehensive improvement. Traditional treatment regimens for cows using local therapy include not always effective intrauterine drugs. Therefore, for the treatment of postnatal infections in animals it is better to use highly active drugs in the form of complexes with aerosols. The purpose of the work was to study the therapeutic and prophylactic properties of the foam-forming aerosol preparation </em><em>«</em><em>Yodozol</em><em>»</em><em> with the comprehensive use of the drugs </em><em>«</em><em>Uterodev</em><em>»</em><em> and </em><em>«</em><em>Devivit Complex</em><em>»</em><em> at postpartum endometritis in cows.</em> <em>To study the therapeutic efficacy of the drug </em><em>«</em><em>Yodozol</em><em>»</em><em> in combination with these drugs, an experimental group (intravenously 1 bottle of foaming aerosol preparation </em><em>«</em><em>Yodozol</em><em>»</em><em>, twice with an interval of 5 days, </em><em>«</em><em>Uterodev</em><em>»</em><em> was injected intramuscularly in a dose of 10 ml twice with an interval of 24 hours, </em><em>«</em><em>Devivit Complex</em><em>»</em><em> was administered once intramuscularly at a dose of 30 ml of a single animal product, </em><em>«</em><em>BTF plus</em><em>»</em><em> subcutaneously at a dose of 15 ml per animal at an interval of 24 hours for 5 days) and control (intramuscularly administered </em><em>«</em><em>Yodopen</em><em>»</em><em> suppositories 1 suppository 1 time per day with an interval of 24 hours for 3 days, together with subcutaneous single dose </em><em>«</em><em>Oxytocin</em><em>»</em><em> in a dose of 6 ml per animal) per 10 animals in each of which the postnatal endometritis was diagnosed.</em> <em>Before and after the administration of drugs in cows suffering from postpartum endometritis, blood was taken for general blood analysis, which was taken aseptically from the jugular vein until the morning feeding. The number of erythrocytes and leukocytes was determined by direct counting in the counting chamber of Goryaev's net, hemoglobin – by Sali method.</em> <em>In the blood of cows after administration of drugs, the content of erythrocytes increased by 1.3 times (P</em> <em>≤</em> <em>0.05), leukocytes and hemoglobin increased by 1.1 times (P</em> <em>≤</em> <em>0.05), compared with similar indices prior to administration, indicating stimulation of erythrocytes and leukopoiesis.</em> <em>The use of </em><em>«</em><em>Yodozol</em><em>»</em><em> aerosol in combination with </em><em>«</em><em>Uterodev</em><em>»</em><em>, </em><em>«</em><em>Devivit Complex</em><em>»</em><em> and </em><em>«</em><em>BTF plus</em><em>»</em><em> preparations during 7 days provided 90% recovery of cows. In the control group of cows, recovery was observed in 65% of cows for 10 days. After recovery of experimental group cows, the service period decreased by 53.0 ± 6.0 days (P</em> <em>≤</em> <em>0.05), the index of insemination decreased by 0.6 units, as compared to similar indicators of control cows.</em></p> O.A. Katsaraba V.Y. Stefanyk Ye.Ye. Kostyshyn R.N. Sachuk O.V. Kulinich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 55 59 10.15421/nvlvet8711 Biofilm-forming ability of coccus forms of the caecal microflora of laying hens when using the probiotic and nanonutrition cobalt <p><em>The use of the feed supplement on the basis of probiotic microorganisms of the genus Lactobacillus in combination with nano-cobalt preparations in a dose of 0.08 mg/kg liveweight in laying hens caused the most significant reduction in the proportion of cow's forms of the microflora of the colon (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.) that formed high-density biofilms by increasing the percentage of these microorganisms with low and medium biofilm-forming ability.</em> <em>A</em><em>fter 14 days of use of probiotic and nanocobalt at a dose of 0</em><em>.</em><em>08 mg/kg, an increase in the percentage of Staphylococcus spp. microorganisms, which formed low and medium density biofilms, respectively, was 7</em><em>.</em><em>2 and 18</em><em>.</em><em>2%, due to the reduction of those with high biofilm formation ability. Such a redistribution of the ability of the studied microorganisms to form a biofilm remained after 28 days of the experiment. However, the number of microorganisms of Staphylococcus spp., which formed low density biofilms, was maximum i.e. 46</em><em>.</em><em>2%. Instead, the number of microorganisms of Staphylococcus spp., which formed high density biofilms, was minimal and amounted to 12</em><em>.</em><em>6%. The indicated trend persists after the end of application of the additive after 14 days.</em> <em>When using probiotic and nano-cobalt at a dose of 0</em><em>.</em><em>08 mg/kg, the highest reliability (</em><em>Р </em><em>&lt;</em> <em>0</em><em>.</em><em>001) of changes in the bio-film-forming ability of microorganisms Enterococcus spp. was established, namely, its reduction. At the same time, the percentage of microorganisms that formed low-density biofilms was the highest in 28 days of use (by 5.1%) and 14 days after the end of feeding of the additive (by 7</em><em>.</em><em>1%). At the same time, the percentage of microorganisms Enterococcus spp. with a high biofilm-forming ability gradually decreased and reached a minimum of 28 days of the experiment (5</em><em>.</em><em>6%). On the 14th day after stopping the feeding of the supplement, it reached 9</em><em>.</em><em>8%.</em> <em>With an increase in the dose of nanocobalt up to 0</em><em>.</em><em>8 mg/kg, significant changes were observed only on the 28th day of feeding and 14 days after the end of the feeding of the feed additive, namely: a decrease in the number of microorganisms Enterococcus spp. with a high biofilm production capacity of 3.4% and 4.8%, respectively.</em> <em>Regarding microorganisms of Streptococcus spp. the most visible effect could be observed with the use of probiotic in a complex with nano-cobalt in a dose of 0.08 mg/kg, namely: by 17</em><em>.</em><em>4%, the number of microorganisms with high bio-plating ability with a gradual increase in the percentage of those that had a low (10</em><em>.</em><em>2%) and average (by 7</em><em>.</em><em>2%) biofilm capacity. After the application of the suppressant was discontinued for 14 days, the corrected changes were maintained.</em></p> Ia. Turko V. Ushkalov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 60 64 10.15421/nvlvet8712 Sensitivity of L. casei and E. сoli to active substances of anti-parasitic preparations <p><em>The data of the influence of active substances of anthelmintic and antiprotozoal preparations on the growth of L. casei IMB B-7280 and E. coli 055K59 are provided in the article. Their minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for these strains of microorganisms and the active substances with which possible simultaneous application of probiotic strain L. casei IMB В-7280 is established.</em> <em>With this aim, the effect on the growth of L. casei IMB B-7280 and E. coli 055K59 and the minimum inhibitory concentration of fenbendazole, levamisole and ivermectin, which are part of the anthelmintic preparations and amprolium, tylosin, sodium sulfadimexone and sodium sulfatyazole, which are active substances of antiprotozoal drugs, were investigated.</em> <em>The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the active substances of antiparasitic agents against these strains of microorganisms was carried out in in vitro experiments by serial dilutions in a dense MRS environment and MPA, and a study of the effect on the growth by diffusion method, followed by measurement of growth retardation zones in millimeters. It is established that among active substances of anthelmintic preparations</em> <em>only phenbendazole caused growth retardation and only relative to L. casei IMB B-7280. Among the active substances of antiprotozoal drugs, sodium sulfatyazole was the most active, which inhibited growth as L. casei IMB-7280 and E. coli 055K59 № 3912/41. Thylosin was effective only in relation to L. casei IMB B-7280 and at the highest concentration of 0.03%, the growth retardation zone was 23.4 ± 0.92 mm.</em> <em>Sodium sulfadimetoxin caused the growth retardation of L. сasei IMB В-7280 only at the highest concentration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of active substances of anti-parasitic drugs was different for strains L. casei IMB B-7280 and E. coli 055K59 № 3912/4. The strongest inhibitory effect was shown by tylosin, which stopped the growth of L. casei IMB B-7280 and E.&nbsp;coli 055K59 № 3912/41 respectively at concentrations of 0.00125 and 50.0 mg/ml.</em> <em>Active substances such as amprolium, levamisole and ivermectin did not significantly inhibit the growth of L. casei, IMB B-7280 and E. coli 055K59 № 3912/41, since their minimal inhibitory concentration was in the range of 4000 to 6000 mg ml.</em></p> R.A. Peleno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 65 69 10.15421/nvlvet8713 Influence of disinfectant «Bi-des» on the sporulation on eimery oocyst of chicken <p><em>Eymeriosis (coccidiosis) is a protozoal disease of a poultry characterized by inhibition, loss of appetite, thirst, diarrhea, often with blood, anemia, nervous phenomena. Diseases are registered in the world everywhere, including in Ukraine. Regardless of its type eymeriosis is one of the most serious technological diseases of farm birds in developed countries. Sick animals excreted with oocysts, which are the source of invasion, and contaminated by them feed, water, litter, equipment of livestock buildings, objects of care, etc. are the factors of transmission. Infection with coccidia occurs in an elementary way by swallowing an oocyst with water or food.</em><em> The results of the study of the des-invasive effect of the Bi-des preparation on oocysts of chicken eimery are presented. In the formulation of the proposed disinfectant, as ADR included: PGMG-hydrochloride and triamine and auxiliaries substances – cocamidopropyl-betaine and glutamic acid as well. Due to which this pharmaceutical combination has a cleansing effect. Researches of the effect of the «Bi-des» preparation on the process of sporulation of the oocyst</em> <em>E. tenella was carried out at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% with exposition of one, two, three and four hours. It was found that the preparation of 1% concentration with&nbsp; exposition of three and four hours caused the death of almost half of the oocyst eimery (44.98 and 47.9%). Sufficiently high oocystocidal effect (62.7–79.9%) were found at 2% disinfectant concentration with different exposition regimes. 3 hours exposition caused 100% lysis oocyst eimeria of chicken. It was established that using&nbsp; the preparation caused visible destructive changes of morphology of the simplest and led to the static effect on the sporulation of the oocyst.</em></p> M.V. Golubtsova V.V. Stybel A.G. Sobolta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 70 73 10.15421/nvlvet8714 The destructive effect of strong concentrations of orthophosphate acid in an acid detergent disinfectant on elements of milking equipment made of stainless steel and aluminum <p><em>A huge part of the milking equipment and milk dishes are made of stainless steel and aluminum. Under certain conditions, the influence of such factors as the atmosphere, water, milk, and chemical agents leads to the destruction of metal working surfaces of the milking equipment, resulting in a shorter period of their exploitation. On damaged sites the milk remains are left, that is actually a good nutrient medium, resulting in the creation of conditions for the active development of the microflora. As a result, the following process leads to a marked reduction in disinfectant effect when sanitized.</em> <em>The object of this work was to investigate the influence of various concentrations of orthophosphate acid in an acid detergent disinfectant on the elements of the milking equipment made of stainless steel and aluminum.</em> <em>Accordingly, the result of the conducted research showed that the orthophosphate acid of all four experimental concentrations (20, 25, 30, 35%) in the acid detergent showed a slight destructive effect on stainless steel and was within the standard of corrosion value up to 2 g/m<sup>2</sup>/year.</em> <em>The increase in the concentration of orthophosphate acid caused a growth in the amount of destruction of stainless steel, which was the highest in the concentration of 35% and amounted to 0.326 g/m<sup>2</sup>/year. The rate of destruction of stainless steel was in the range from 0.895 ± 0.0036 to 1.712 ± 0.0031 mg/m<sup>2</sup>/hour and was significantly lower than the norm, which is up to 6.0 mg/m<sup>2</sup>-year. The magnitude of the destructive action of 20, 25, 30, 35% of the concentration of orthophosphoric acid in an acid mist and disinfectant on the plates of aluminum was higher than the norm, respectively, at 2.42, 2.88, 3.09 and 3.60 times, and the rate of destruction – respectively, at 2.17, 2.63, 2.82 and 3.28 times. Therefore, the addition of a nitric acid ammonium inhibitor in the experimental variants of acidic detergent disinfectant resulted in a decrease in the magnitude of the destruction of aluminum. The results were higher than the norm but were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) compared to control, which used «Ecocid», an acid concentration of 30%.</em></p> M.M. Verkholiuk R.A. Pelenio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 74 77 10.15421/nvlvet8715 Antibiotic resistance of lactis acid bacteria and the risk of its transmission with fermented dairy products <p><em>Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is a global health problem that affects not only </em><em>on </em><em>humane and veterinary medicine, but also </em><em>on </em><em>food</em><em> products.</em> <em>T</em><em>he food chain </em><em>can be by transmission</em><em> of antibiotic resistance </em><em>from</em><em> bacterial populations </em><em>to</em><em> animals and humans. </em><em>Literary data on the current state of the problem of antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) </em><em>in Ukraine and in the world</em><em> are given in the review.</em><em> Possible ways of transferring resistance to antibiotics through fermented dairy products </em><em>are shown</em><em>. The main aspects of the danger of </em><em>transmission</em><em> of antibiotic resistance genes through the </em><em>LAB</em><em> and fermented dairy products are revealed. The main modern approaches to the definition of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms with the use of classical and modern research methods are described</em><em>.</em><em> The </em><em>article</em><em> provides the main sources of information on the safety of use of </em><em>LAB</em><em> as starter cultures and probiotics for the production of fermented dairy products.</em> <em>The hypothesis of the resistance gene's reservoir suggests that </em><em>LAB</em><em> can be a reservoir of sustainability genes, and the subsequent transfer of such genes to pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.</em> <em>The presence of antibiotic resistance genes transposed horizontally is inadmissible for lactobacilli, which are used as commercial bacterial agents for the production of fermented dairy products.</em> <em>According to the literature data, the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important criterion for assessing the safety of lactobacilli, which are used as starting cultures for the production of fermented dairy products or probiotics.</em> <em>It has been established that </em><em>it is obligatory </em><em>to study the antibiotic resistance gene</em> <em>in addition to clinical and laboratory methods of studying the antibiotic resistance of </em><em>LAB.</em><em> To minimize the formation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in </em><em>food </em><em>products of plant and animal origin it is possible by careful monitoring of residues of antibiotics in raw materials and finished products. This will prevent the entry of antibiotic resistant strains into the natural cycle.</em></p> I.M. Slyvka O.Y. Tsisaryk L.Y. Musiy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 78 84 10.15421/nvlvet8716 Therapeutic effectiveness of probiotic and phytobiotic for gastroenteritis of weaned piglets <p><em>The inappropriate use of chemically synthesized antibacterial drugs, including fodder antibiotics, leads to a disturbance of the microbial ecosystems of the digestive canal and the appearance of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms of resistance to them. Therefore, in recent years, the use of animal-safe and environmentally friendly probiotics and phytobiotics has become widespread. Their action is aimed at the normalization of metabolic processes in the body and the mobilization of protective factors of the immune system, which is an effective alternative to traditional methods of prevention and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The article presents data on the influence of probiotic TOYOCERIN10⁹ and phytobiotic EXTRACT™ 6930 in combination with antibiotic (10% solution of enrofloxacin hydrochloride) on the clinical and haematological status of excised piglets, patients with gastroenteritis and their safety. The positive influence of probiotic and phytobiotic on the state of erythrocytopoesis was established. In particular, after treatment in experimental piglets, the number of erythrocytes decreased by 14.3% (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.001) and 13.4% (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.001), the hemoglobin content was 10.5% (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.01) and 13.1% (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.001) compared to the animals before treatment and reached the level of clinically healthy animals. The value of hematocrit in the blood of the exterminated piglets of all groups after treatment has reached the level of indices of clinically healthy animals. It is important to note that the use of probiotic and phytobiotic has positively influenced the leukocytopoiesis of piglets, as indicated by a decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood of piglets in experimental groups by 26.9% (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.001) and 25.4% (P</em> <em>&lt;</em> <em>0.001), compared with animal characteristics before treatment. Treatment of piglets using 10% solution of enrofloxacin hydrochloride, contributed to the improvement of the clinical condition of diseased animals in the 7–9th day, whereas in piglets, which were additionally used probiotic TOYOCERIN</em> <em>10⁹ on 5–7th in the phytobiotic EXTRACT™ 6930 – on the 3–5th day. It was established that the use of probiotic TOYOCERIN</em> <em>10⁹ and the phytobiotic EXTRACT™ 6930 in combination with the antibiotic increased the safety of experimental group piglets by 12.8% and 17.0%, as compared to the control group.</em></p> L.G. Slivinska B.O. Lukashchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 85 88 10.15421/nvlvet8717 Use of fluoroquinolones in practice of veterinary medicine of Ukraine <p><em>Antibacterial agents are one of the most important groups of medical preparations &nbsp;in the treatment of bacterial infection of different localization in humane and in veterinary medicine. The consequence of their rational use (the establishment of sensitivity of the pathogenic microflora, compliance with the course of treatment, etc.) have a high therapeutic effect and the minimum development of resistant strains of microorganisms. The widely used&nbsp; group of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine are second-generation fluorohinolone antibiotics that have good pharmacokinetic properties, a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity, and relatively low toxicity, although they have their own warnings and restrictions on the use of small animals during the formation of bone tissue. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy and minimizing of side effects, it is described the compatibility of some fluoroquinolones with other pharmacological groups. They found their application in the treatment of both productive animals, poultry, fur animals and petty domestic (dogs and cats) with a bacterial infection of the urinary tract, digestive and respiratory systems, infected wounds, etc. The article describes the detailed mechanism of action of the antibiotics of the fluoroquinolone group, which provides an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the manifestation of the bactericidal effect, as well as their classification by generation or generation. Particular attention deserves attention to the time of carrenia of fluoroquinolones in the context of their application to productive animals, because high quality livestock products minimize the development of resistant strains in humans and provide them with health. There is also a list of all registered medicinal products registered in Ukraine containing: ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, marbofloxacin, denofloxacin, which carries important informative information for practicing doctors, pharmacists, etc.</em></p> N. Slobodyuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-26 2018-04-26 20 88 89 93 10.15421/nvlvet8718